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The Mineral Industry of Bolivia in 2013 - USGS Mineral Resources

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2013 Minerals Yearbook BOLIVIA [ADVANCE RELEASE]

U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

January 2016

The Mineral Industry of Bolivia By Susan Wacaster Bolivia is a globally important supplier of bulk ores and mineral concentrates. In 2013, the country was estimated to have produced 8% of the world’s total mine output of tin; silver, 5%; antimony and zinc, 3% each; and lead and tungsten, about 2% each. Most of the volume of Bolivia’s mineral production was exported in raw form by rail to ports on the coasts of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru and then shipped to processing facilities located in Asia, Europe, and North America. Bolivia’s mineral resources have not been fully explored or developed. In addition to the minerals listed above, Bolivia is thought to have globally relevant resources of cadmium, chromium, gold, indium, iron ore, lithium, nickel, palladium, platinum, potash, and tantalum (George, 2014; Guberman, 2014a, b; Shedd, 2014; Tolcin, 2014a, b). In 2013, the Government of Bolivia announced that it planned to increase production of tin at state-owned operations. The production capacity of the Vinto smelter was targeted to be increased to 30,000 metric tons per year (t/yr) by 2025, supported by increased average annual mine production of tin in concentrate from the Colquiri and Huanuni Mines (combined) of about 22,600 metric tons (t). As of June, there had been no exploratory drilling for nonfuel minerals compared with 3,000 meters (m) that had been drilled in the same period of 2012. No new major mining projects were started in 2013 owing in part to decreasing prices for Bolivia’s mineral exports in the global market and uncertainty regarding tax increases to mining companies as the pending mining bill still had not been enacted (Kovars, 2013; ITRI, Ltd. 2014a). Bolivia is divided into six physiographic provinces east to west—the Precambrian Shield, the Chaco-Beni Plain, the sub-Andean zone, the eastern Cordillera, the Altiplano, and the western Cordillera. The latter four provinces make up the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Central Andes Mountains in Bolivia, which host mineral deposits that have been mined for centuries. Along with Bolivia’s Central Andes, the Precambrian Shield and the Chaco-Beni Plain are part of three important South American metallogenic provinces that extend beyond the country’s borders (Arce-Burgoa, 2007). In the Precambrian Shield of eastern Bolivia (Guapore Craton), the presence of significant gold resources is indicated by auriferous veins and placers near the Brazilian border in the area of the Paragua Craton gold and manganese belt, which has been mined artisanally since the 1700s. Disseminated- to massivepolymetallic sulfide deposits are associated with Neoproterozoic rift basins in the southern part of the Bolivian Precambrian Shield, especially in the Tucavaca basin. Disseminated copper, lead, and zinc mineralization and veins of barite, galena, and quartz in oxidized clastic rock sequences and reduced black shale units of the basin are interpreted to indicate undiscovered sedimentary exhalative deposits. Lead-and-zinc-rich zones in ferruginous dolomites and stromatolitic reef formations in the northern part of the Tucavaca basin are interpreted

to be potential Mississippi Valley-type mineralization. The Precambrian Shield province hosts copper-, gold-, silver-, and zinc-bearing volcanic massive sulfide occurrences, massiveto-laminated pyrite- and chalcopyrite-bearing bodies (with and without galena and sphalerite) in bimodal volcanic rhyolite and metasedimentary mesoproterozoic rocks, and a series of mineral occurrences associated with 1-billion-year-old pegmatites intruded into schist that are favorable for the occurrence of beryllium, niobium, tantalum, thorium, tin, and uranium; and rift-related rare-earth-element-mineralized alkaline syenites (Arce-Burgoa, 2007). The Mutun-Tucavaca ferromanganiferous belt hosts moderately high-grade banded iron formations, including the Mutun, Cerro Rojo, and Cerro Colorade-Murcielago deposits located in grabens of the Tucavaca basin. The Bolivian central Andes area is characterized by mineralized belts hosting Miocene to Pliocene red bed copper deposits; epithermal precious metal deposits; orogenic gold in slate belts; platinumgroup metals and nickel in mafic and ultramafic intrusions; base metals in volcanogenic massive sulfide and sedimentary exhalative deposits; banded iron formations; the salars of the Altiplano and western Cordillera; the Miocene tin belt; Paleozoic antimony and gold belts; and the lead and zinc belt of the eastern Cordillera. The Chaco-Beni Plain contains one of the world’s major alluvial gold concentrations, which has its source region in the high elevations of the eastern Cordillera of northern Bolivia (Arce-Burgoa, 2007). Minerals in the National Economy Bolivia’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2013, which was valued at $30.6 billion, increased by 6.8%; this growth rate was second only to Panama in the Latin America region and double that of the GDP growth rate of South America as a whole. The hydrocarbon sector led the economic growth in Bolivia followed by the communication, storage, and transportation sector (Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014a, p. 147; 2014c). According to estimates for 2012 and 2013, the value of activity in the natural gas and crude petroleum sector accounted for about 14% of the country’s GDP in 2013 compared with 14.7% in 2012, and the value of metallic and nonmetallic minerals accounted for 2.9% in both years. The industrial manufacturing sector accounted for 6.1% of the GDP in 2013 (Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014a, p. 149). The value of the country’s production of natural gas and crude petroleum increased by 14% in 2013 after increasing by about 14.7% in 2012 and 7.2% in 2011; that of nonfuel minerals increased by 2.9% after decreasing by 5% in 2012 and increasing by 3.4% in 2011 (Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014a, p. 147). Preliminary data for 2013 indicated that the value of Bolivia’s marketed production of minerals decreased by 18% compared with that of 2012 to about $3.1 billion. The greatest decrease in value was for gold, the value of which decreased by 48.7%

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compared with that of 2012. Silver continued to generate the most value. The marketed value of silver was about $1 billion followed by that of zinc ($757 million), gold ($562 million), tin ($370 million), antimony ($51.7 million), and wolframite (tungsten) ($30.2 million). The value of marketed production of other minerals (unclassified) was $292.7 million, of which the value of other metals (unclassified) was $74 million. The value of exported hydrocarbon products increased by 11.3% in 2013 to $6.6 billion. Natural gas exports accounted for 92.3% of the total value; diesel oil and crude petroleum combined accounted for 6.7%; and other fuels (fuel oil, gasoline, and liquefied natural gas) accounted for less than 0.1% (Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014a, p. 93). According to preliminary data from the Central Bank of Bolivia (BCB), Government revenue from royalties charged to private mining companies was $153.3 million in 2013 compared with $141.1 million in 2012. Annual revenues from other taxes on the mining sector were not available. In 2013, Government revenue from direct sales of hydrocarbons increased to $6.9 billion from $5.8 billion in 2012, and from taxes on the hydrocarbon sector, increased to $425.2 million from $356.7 million in 2012. With respect to the hydrocarbon sector, royalty rates of 11% of marketed production were levied in the Chuquisaca, Cochambabma, Santa Cruz, and Tarija Departments where hydrocarbon products were produced. The value of production of hydrocarbon products alone accounted for between 5% and 7% of the GDP each year from 2004 through 2010 (the last year for which data were available by sector and Department), and the sales of natural gas to Argentina and Brazil alone generated more than 50% of revenue to the national treasury (Gonzálo, 2013, p. 2, 14, 18; Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014a, p. 177; Instituto Boliviano de Comercio Exterior, 2014). Preliminary data from the Instituto Boliviano de Comercio Exterior indicate that gross foreign direct investment (FDI) in Bolivia in 2013 reached a maximum value of about $2 billion. The flow of FDI into the exploration for and production of crude petroleum and natural gas increased to $1.4 billion in 2013 from $946.2 million in 2012, and the flow of FDI into the mining and quarrying sector decreased to $151 million from $218.9 million. The leading source of FDI in the Bolivian economy was the United States ($676 million), followed by Switzerland ($346.7 million), the United Kingdom ($309.1 million), and France ($219.5 million), the total of which accounted for 76% of the FDI received in 2013. In 2013, the industrial manufacturing sector replaced the mining and quarrying sector as the second-ranked recipient of FDI. In 2013, the Potosi Department received mining royalties of $96.2 million or 58% of the total mining royalties in the country and $74.5 million in the first 9 months of 2014. In the first half of 2014, Bolivia’s net FDI decreased by 1% compared with the same period in 2013. The bulk of FDI was received by the hydrocarbon sector ($567 million), followed by industrial manufacturing ($133 million) and the mining and quarrying sector ($95 million) (Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014b, Instituto Boliviano de Comercio Exterior, 2014; Ministerio de Minería y Metalurgia, 2014).

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Government Policies and Programs On January 25, 2009, Bolivians approved a new Constitution, which was enacted on February 7. The Constitution stipulates that Bolivian investment will be prioritized over foreign investment (Article 320)—a potentially important change in terms of foreign investment that established that Bolivia would no longer recognize international arbitration courts; economic activity cannot damage the collective good (Article 47); transferring national resources that are the social property of the Bolivian people in favor of companies, people, or foreign states can be considered an act of treason (Article 125); and Bolivian constitutional law supersedes international law and treaties (Article 410), the latter of which led the Bolivian Government to revoke the bilateral investment treaties (BIT) with the United States and other countries in order to be in compliance with the new Constitution (U.S. Department of State, 2014, p. 1–2). The new Constitution had yet to be fully implemented by the end of 2013, but it was aimed at strengthening state control over key economic sectors, including the hydrocarbon and mining sectors. In accordance with the principles of the Constitution, the Government worked out a first draft of a new mining law to replace the Mining Code of 1997 (law No. 1777 of March 17, 1997), and the draft mining law was completed in January 2011. In March 2011, the Government established a commission to finalize the new mining law, but by yearend 2013, the new mining law had not been approved. In 2013, law No. 367 was passed to identify mines deemed by the state to be unproductive, inactive, or idle. Under this law, the Government would be allowed to reassign recovered areas to other entities in accordance with a mining development plan. Companies that lose concessions would not be entitled to compensation. The law would not apply to concessions held by the state-owned Corporación Minera de Bolivia (COMIBOL) and did not grant any rights to unauthorized or illegal miners. As well as lack of activity, contracts could be rescinded for other reasons, including failure to register a mined area with the Servicio Nacional de Geología y Técnico de Minas (SERGEOTECMIN). Law no. 367 incorporated into the Penal Code the crime of illegal occupation of mining areas and established sentencing guidelines of between 4 and 8 years in jail for individuals who appropriate any deposit or market mineralogical reserves without authorization from COMIBOL. The responsibility of determining whether a concession is idle or not was assigned to the Vice Ministry of Auditing and Regulatory Policy in the Ministry of Mines (Demo-Dananberg, 2013a; Latinominería, 2014) Production Data on mineral production are in table 1. In terms of the quantity of mine production of metals, zinc continued to be the leading nonfuel commodity mined in Bolivia in 2013 followed by lead, tin, copper, antimony, and tungsten. The copper content of mine output increased by 52% in 2013 to 7,549 t, mine production of copper had increased steadily each year since 2009. The volume of primary refined copper increased by 40.6% to 1,271 t. Primary copper production had generally increased U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2013

since 2009, although there was a small decrease in 2012 that did not correlate with the increasing production of mined copper output. Mine production of gold decreased by just 4.2%, but the volume of gold metal produced continued a steady decline since 2009 and decreased by 24.7% in 2013. The gross weight of tantalite increased by 11.9% to 46,558 kilograms (kg) in 2013; production of tantalite had increased every year since 2010. Production of industrial minerals is typically variable and often depends on local economies, public works contracts, and other microeconomic considerations. Reported production of industrial minerals in 2013 was similar to that of 2012 except for the leading industrial mineral ulexite, which increased in terms of volume, by 17.4% to 149,818 t in 2013. The amount of primary production from the hydrocarbon sector was relatively unchanged, with the exception of liquefied petroleum gas, which increased by 28% in 2013. Production of refinery products is typically variable but within a relatively limited range dictated by refinery capacities. Decreases in the production of aviation gasoline and kerosene were more than compensated for by increases in other refinery products and total refinery product production increased in 2013 by 14% to 13.9 million barrels (table 1). Structure of the Mineral Industry Table 2 is a list of the major mineral industry facilities, together with the major owners and operators. Control of the extraction of natural resources in Bolivia had alternated between public and private control for decades. In 1952, a process of nationalizing the mineral industry took place as the Government monopolized the export and sale of all minerals, which was administered by the state-owned Mining Bank of Bolivia. COMIBOL was then created to administer state-run mines. Mines belonging to the three major tin companies were nationalized, but the country’s medium-size mines were not. In the process, two-thirds of the mineral industry was turned over to COMIBOL. By 1985, the mineral industry in Bolivia had collapsed owing to the combined effects of political and economic conflicts (including political revolution and alternating civilian and military rule), decreased global prices for Bolivia’s mineral commodity exports, and economic hyperinflation in 1984 and 1985. In 2006, COMIBOL began operating under a framework of natural resource recovery and mineral industry reactivation with responsibility for the direct management of the Nation’s state-owned mining centers (Morales and Sachs, 1987, p. 57; Corporación Minera de Bolivia, 2014). In 1996, the oil and gas industries of Bolivia were privatized with direction from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank as part of a plan to increase foreign investment in those industries. The hydrocarbon sector was then renationalized in 2006 to increase Government revenues that could be directed towards public programs for health, education, pensions, and poverty reduction. In 2013, mining participation in the country was composed of private mining companies (70%), mining cooperatives (21%), and state-owned mining companies (9%) (Lefebvre and Bonifaz, 2014). Bolivia’s mining collectives mine deposits that were explored and prepared for COMIBOL and pay 1% of the marketed

value of extracted minerals to operate on their concessions. The income generated by cooperatives typically amounts to modest salaries for members, but as the prices of metals have remained high in recent years, the cooperatives have developed into a significant economic and social power. Bolivia’s mining collectives are subsidized by the state in several ways— primarily by being exempt from paying income taxes. In the case of gold, the collectives pay five times less in royalties than mining companies, and the majority of mining cooperatives function as gold miners. The cooperatives receive donations of equipment and other inputs in order to operate and benefit from financial entities that were created exclusively for the benefit of the collectives and have their own mineral traders that are funded by the state along with other benefits. In early 2014, about 100 mining cooperatives were understood to have partnered with private companies mostly working in Potosi and La Paz. By partnering with private companies, those cooperatives increased their earnings while remaining exempt from paying income taxes on the additional income, and the private companies benefited by gaining access to mining areas from which they had been restricted (Diario Página Siete, 2014). COMIBOL held dozens of mining properties in various stages of development or environmental remediation. Producing mines that were partially or wholly owned by COMIBOL in 2013 included but were not limited to the Coro Coro copper mine [jointly owned by COMIBOL (55%) and Korea Resources Corp. of the Republic of Korea (45%)]; the Cerro Rico silver, tin, and zinc mine (COMIBOL, 100%); the Huanuni tin mine (COMIBOL, 100%); the Bolivar lead, silver, tin, and zinc mine (a joint venture between COMIBOL and Sinchi Wayra S.A., with a 50% share each); the Colquiri silver, tin, and zinc mine (COMIBOL, 100%); and the Sinchi Wayra lead, silver, and zinc mine (joint venture between COMIBOL and Sinchi Wayra S.A. 50% each) (table 2). Mineral Trade The value of exported goods from Bolivia increased by 2.3% in 2013 to $11.5 billion. The increase was driven by exports of natural gas and petroleum followed by nonmineral commodities, including garments, leather, jewelry, soy, and sugar products, which led exports of ores and concentrates of copper, gold, lead, silver, and wolframite (tungsten). Decreased international prices for Bolivia’s exported goods and decreased external demand (particularly from Euro zone countries and China) had affected multiple sectors of the economy, including the agricultural and mineral sectors, leading to decreases in the marketed value of such major Bolivian exports as antimony and silver, as well as coffee and chestnuts. The value of natural gas exports, however, increased by 11.6% compared with that of 2012 owing to increased volume of exports to Argentina and Brazil (Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014b, p. 9–10). In 2013, the value of goods imported to Bolivia increased by 12.9% to $9.4 billion. The increase was due to the importation of capital goods and intermediate goods. Imports of intermediate goods accounted for 46.9% of the total value, an increase of 6.3% compared with those of 2012, and consisted primarily of construction materials and goods for the agricultural and

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industrial sectors. Imports of capital goods increased by 25% compared with those of 2012 to $2.9 billion owing to the acquisition of transportation equipment (Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014b, p. 9–10). Preliminary data from the BCB indicated that the combined annual value of hydrocarbon and mineral exports decreased by 0.4% to about $9.6 billion in 2013. Hydrocarbon products accounted for 68.1% compared with 61.4% of the total in 2012. The annual value of nonfuel mineral exports decreased by 17% in 2013 to about $3.1 billion and accounts for 31.9% of the total value of mineral exports compared with 38.5% in 2012. The private sector, which included medium-scale mining, was the source of 91.1% of the value of nonfuel mineral exports, but it also experienced the greatest losses as the value of exports decreased to about $2.8 billion from $3.4 billion in 2012. Public sector exports, which included those from COMIBOL, increased by 15% to $273.3 million. The BCB’s preliminary analysis of variation in value of mineral exports as a function of price and quantity effects between 2012 and 2013 indicated that the total variation in value for nonfuel minerals was a decrease of $625.7 million and that of hydrocarbons was an increase of $662.8 million (Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014b, p. 36, 44). In 2013, COMIBOL exported 4,089 t of mineral concentrates valued at $9.5 million; medium-scale miners (which included some small-scale mining and large companies) exported 567,249 t of mineral products valued at $1.9 billion; mining cooperatives exported 123,790 t of mineral products valued at $660.5 million. COMIBOL exported 12,541 t of metal valued at $263.8 billion. In 2013, 100% of Bolivia’s reported production of antimony and wolframite (tungsten), 99.5% of silver production, 96.5% of zinc production, 87.8% of copper production, 85.8% of tin production, and 72.2% of gold producton was exported. In terms of value, the United States ($829 million) received the greatest amount of nonfuel mineral exports from Bolivia followed by Japan ($406.8 million), China ($283.3 million), and Peru ($188.5 million). The total value of hydrocarbon products exported from Bolivia in 2013 was about $6.6 billion. Of that, Argentina and Brazil accounted for $2.4 billion and $3.9 billion, respectively, which together represented about 96.5% of the total (Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014b, p. 43, 49, 52) Commodity Review Metals Antimony.—Since pre-Colonial times, Bolivia produced antimony from small but rich vein-type deposits often associated with gold. Many deposits, particularly those of the Caracota-Carma-Candelaria belt of the eastern Cordillera, are particularly enriched in antimony. These deposits typically have uniform mineralogy and preserve evidence of two distinct mineral paragenesis events. Products of the earlier event include arsenopyrite-, gold-, pyrite-, and tungsten-bearing minerals in milky quartz whereas a later event involved deposition of antimony-, copper-, lead-, and zinc-bearing sulfides in microgranular, bluish-gray quartz (Tri-Star Resources Plc, 2012, p. 3). In May 2011, Shrewton Investments Ltd. of South Africa acquired a 70% ownership interest in the San Antonio deTuriri Mine and 3.4 [ADVANCE RELEASE]

reestablished mine roads, tested the remaining tailings dumps, sampled outcrops, and reopened the Justo Juez shaft at the mine. The Turiri Mine had been closed in 1978 when China entered the antimony market and international antimony prices collapsed in the late 1970s and 1980s. Prior to 1978, the mine produced high-grade ore, and mineral concentrate was produced onsite. As a result, there were four historic tailings dumps with a combined 21,500 t of material containing an average of 4% antimony that were economically feasible for flotation processing. Information was not available about primary production of antimony at the Turiri Mine in 2012 or 2013, but startup projections of capacity were expected to be about 200 metric tons per month (t/mo) of concentrate ramping up to 1,000 t/mo if a plant were to be commissioned (Amalgamated Gold and Silver Inc., 2014). Iron Ore and Manganese.—In September 2013, the Bolivian Government announced that it was preparing to invite bids for a 50% share in the Mutún iron ore deposit and steel manufacturing facility. When Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. of India pulled out of the Mutún project in July 2012, the company reportedly had stockpiled an estimated 40,000 t of ore at Puerto Quijarro. In October 2011, the state-owned steel company Empresa Siderúrgica del Mutún (ESM) reportedly had exported about 10,000 t of iron ore from El Mutún to a steel company in Paraguay, Aceros del Paraguay S.A. (ACEPAR), and ESM had expected to resume exporting iron ore to ACEPAR in 2012. The United Nations reported about 6,000 t of iron ore imports to Paraguay from Bolivia in 2011 and about 9,200 t in 2012 and about 1,200 t of iron ore imports to China from Bolivia in 2013 (Jamasmie, 2013; United Nations Statistics Division, 2014). Jindal had signed a 40-year contract in 2007 to mine the Mutún deposit with ESM and COMIBOL. Jindal had been granted the right to mine 50% of the reserves (estimated to be 40 billion metric tons) and to export 10 million metric tons per year (Mt/yr). The company agreed to construct a 10-Mt/yr-capacity pellet plant, a 6-Mt/yr-capacity sponge iron unit, a 1.7-Mt/yr-capacity steel plant, and a 450-megawatt powerplant. The total expected investment was $2.1 billion, which was the largest foreign investment contract signed in the history of Bolivia (equal to almost 12% of Bolivia’s GDP in 2007), from which the Government was expected to earn $200 million per year for the duration of the contract. The contract was also the largest of its kind finalized by an Indian company in Latin America and was expected to generate subsequent opportunities for Indian investment. By July 2012, however, the contract had been terminated by Jindal. The Government stated that the company pulled out of the project owing to poor planning and insufficient funding. The company cited the lack of an approved contract for a sufficient supply of natural gas and a lack of sufficient infrastructure to be able to develop the site and to export the mine output (Viswanathan, 2013). Silver and Zinc.—As of June 2013, Minera San Cristobal (MCS), a wholly owned subsidiary of Sumitomo Corp. of Japan and owner of the San Cristobal Mine, held 62 concessions in Bolivia, but was carrying out work on less than 10% of those concessions. MCS was, therefore, one of the companies that could potentially be affected by the passage of law No. 367. The Government stated publically, however, in 2012 that it would U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2013

not nationalize the San Cristobal Mine, which was the Nation’s most valuable mine and from which the Government received $150 million in taxes and royalties in 2011 (the most recent year for which data were available) (Ramos, 2012; Kovars, 2013). At Empresa Minera Colquiri’s Colquiri Mine, which was nationalized in 2012, production included 14,764 t of zinc in concentrate. The Government approved a performance-related bonus for workers at Colquiri in October 2013 that would provide an extra month’s pay per year if EMC achieved its financial and production forecasts by yearend. It was reported that installation of a new concentration plant and microrefinery was approved in 2013 (Lonergan, 2013; ITRI Ltd., 2014a). Tin.—Bolivia’s state tin company Empresa Minera Huanuni (EMH) reported that it would increase tin concentrate production in 2014 to 3,000 t/mo owing to the construction of a new mill. Construction of the mill was 70% complete in October 2013. Once completed, the new plant could increase the estimated production capacity at Huanuni to between 13,000 and 14,000 t/yr of tin in concentrates. Production of tin metal at the Vinto smelter decreased slightly to 11,253 t compared with 11,350 t in 2012; production of tin metal by Operaciones Metalúrgicas S.A. increased to about 3,600 t compared with about 3,276 t in 2012. At the Colquiri Mine, production included 3,312 t of tin in concentrate. The amount of tin in concentrate produced at Colquiri was forecast to increase to about 8,000 t by 2025 (ITRI Ltd. 2013, 2014a, b). In March 2014, Victory Mines Ltd. of Australia announced that it would acquire South American Tin Ltd. of Australia. At the same time, South American Tin was preparing for production at the San Pedrito Mine. The San Pedrito project involved South American Tin and the Juan del Valle Mining Cooperative’s collaboration to establish a 150-metric-ton-perday (t/d) processing plant to treat ore from the cooperative’s existing underground mine plus surface stockpiles and tailings. When completed, the operation could produce about 300 t/yr of tin in concentrate (ITRI Ltd., 2014c; Victory Mines Ltd., 2014). Tungsten.—On January 25, 2012, the Government nationalized the La Himalaya tungsten mine. The license to the mining concession had been held by Empresa Minera Barrosquira Ltda. (Embas) since 1995, but the mine had been operated by the Cerro Negro mining cooperative. In 2009, Empresa Minera Himalaya (EMH) and COMIBOL formed a joint venture and EMH invested $9 million in developing a 300-t/d operation. In 2013, EMH accused COMIBOL of breaching the law with statements relating to the Himalaya Mine indicating that COMIBOL intended to operate the mine without the participation of EMH (Beltrán, 2009; Williams, 2013). Industrial Minerals Lithium and Potash.—In 2013, COMIBOL completed the construction of a pilot plant for processing brines in the Salar de Uyuni. The pilot plant had a design capacity of 40 t/mo of lithium carbonate. There were no reports of marketable production of lithium in Bolivia during the year. In addition to the pilot lithium carbonate plant, COMIBOL planned to develop a small-scale mine and construct a pilot plant that would have the capacity to produce about 12,000 t/yr of potash

(potassium chloride) at the Salar de Uyuni. These projects were expected to be the first stage of work to eventually produce lithium carbonate and potash on a large scale by the end of 2015 (including proposed plans to construct new facilities with capacities to produce 30,000 t/yr of lithium carbonate and 700,000 t/yr of potash), as well as other minerals from the salar, such as boron and magnesium. The complex chemistry of the brines of the Salar de Uyuni as well as such environmental factors as higher rates of rainfall and lower rates of evaporation than in other salars led some analysts to project that producing lithium carbonate on a commercial scale from Salar de Uyuni could be more costly than producing it from other salars (Beltrán, 2011; Watts, 2011; Dyson, 2012; Demo-Dananberg, 2013b). Mineral Fuels Natural Gas and Petroleum.—In 2013, there were 57 active fields, with 41 operating contracts, where natural gas and hydrocarbon liquids (condensate, natural gas liquids, and crude petroleum) were produced in Bolivia. According to the Ministry of Hydrocarbons and Energy, the average daily production volume of marketed natural gas was about 56.4 million cubic meters per day and that volume was projected to increase to about 64.5 million cubic meters per day in 2014. Marketed production of natural gas had increased every year since 2009 when production was 34 million cubic meters per day. Production of natural gas liquids increased each year during the same period, averaging 11,790 barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2013 compared with 7,260 bbl/d in 2009. Condensate production on a daily basis also increased each year since 2009 to 4,260 bbl/d in 2013 from 2,816 bbl/d in 2009. In 2013, 11 new exploratory wells were drilled compared with a total of 39 wells drilled between 2006 and 2013. Drilling of development wells increased steadily since 2007 when there was no activity. Development drilling primarily for petroleum took place at large fields, including the Margartia and the San Alberto fields, but also at smaller fields, including the Caranda, the Surubi, and the Tatarenda fields; the increase in development was a result of policies to increase production. Additional work in 2014 was expected to take place at 47 wells (Ministerio Hydrocarburos y Energía, 2014, p. 48–50, 53–54). Outlook Despite strong economic growth in 2013, Bolivia’s mining sector appeared relatively stagnant as uncertainty regarding the passage of the country’s proposed new mining law continued to hamper investment and exploration. There was no indication that the mine production would differ significantly in 2014 compared with that of 2013 given that there were no major capacity expansions planned to be completed or new operations expected to commence in 2014. The hydrocarbon sector was expected to continue its modest but steady growth. In early 2014, a draft mining bill was submitted to Bolivia’s Legislative Assembly. The main purpose of the bill was to migrate contracts signed by mining companies under the former concession-based model to new administrative mining contracts, the need for which came about owing to the 2009 Constitutional mandate that natural resources are the property of the Bolivian

BOLIVIA—2013 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 3.5

people. The proposed administrative mining model was intended to increase state oversight of the mining sector. If approved, the state will be authorized to oversee all mining activities and monitor investment and work plans for mines within the public or private sector as well as the mining collectives. This change, however, meant that more than 7,000 contracts would need to transition to the new model if the mining law is approved; these contracts could include major operations, including Sumitomo’s San Cristobal Mine. The Ministry of Mines and its operational entity that is authorized to approve and sign contracts lack the capacity to inspect all former concessions and would be delegating the monitoring of the process to regional governments and municipalities. The new contract model will enable state mining companies to associate with Bolivian or foreign companies, as well as mining industry entities to set up associations. Legislative approval will be required to authorize joint ventures between COMIBOL or mining cooperatives and private sector entities. This requirement was introduced during the debate process in the House of Deputies and has been contested by mining cooperative representatives. It was thought to be unlikely that the Government would reverse its position regarding the legislative oversight because to do so would now be unconstitutional (IHS Inc., 2014). References Cited Amalgamated Gold and Silver Inc., 2014, San Antonio de Turiri: Amalgamated Gold and Silver Inc.—Projects. (Accessed December 2, 2014, at http://ags-inc.co/?page_id=74.) Arce-Burgoa, O.R., and Goldfarb, R.J., 2007, Guia a los yacimientos metaliferos de Bolivia—Metalogenia de Bolivia: La Paz, Bolivia. (Accessed September 21, 2014, at http://www.osvaldoarce.com/metalogenia.html). Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014a, Boletín estadístico 361—Marzo 2014: La Paz, Bolivia, Banco Central de Bolivia, [n.p.]. (Accessed November 1, 2014, at http://www.bcb.gob.bo/webdocs/publicacionesbcb/estadisticomarzo14.pdf.) Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014b, Boletin del sector externo 50— Diciembre 2013: La Paz, Bolivia, Banco Central de Bolivia, [n.p.]. (Accessed November 22, 2014, at http://www.bcb.gob.bo/webdocs/publicacionesbcb/ externodic13.pdf.) Banco Central de Bolivia, 2014c, Boletín informativo—Evaluación de la economía 2013: La Paz, Bolivia, Banco Central de Bolivia, [n.p.], January, 4 p. Beltrán, Harvey, 2009, Himalaya Comibol agrees to form JV to end mine’s takeover: Business News Americas, October 21. (Accessed December 2, 2014, at http://subscriber.bnamericas.com/Subscriber/ index.jsp?idioma=I&tipoContenido=detalle&pagina=content&idContenido= 495247&tipoDocumento=1.) Beltrán, Harvey, 2011, CITIC to finance lithium exploration at Coipasa salt flat—Bolivia: Business News Americas, September 26, 1 p. Corporación Minera de Bolivia, 2014, La Corporación Minera de Bolivia (COMIBOL): Corporación Minera de Bolivia. (Accessed November 12, 2014, at http://dimacomibol.gob.bo/es/quienes_somos/la_comibol.). Demo-Dananberg, Alexandra, 2013a, Bolivia advances on law to recover idle mining concessions: Business News Americas, June 10. (Accessed December 2, 2014, via http://subscriber.bnamericas.com/Subscriber/ index.jsp?idioma=I&tipoContenido=detalle&pagina=content&idContenido= 619310&tipoDocumento=1.) Demo-Dananberg, Alexandra, 2013b, Production begins at Bolivia’s lithium carbonate pilot plant: Business News Americas, January 3. (Accessed December 2, 2014, via http://subscriber.bnamericas.com/Subscriber/ index.jsp?idioma=I&tipoContenido=detalle&pagina=content&idContenido= 605412&tipoDocumento=1.) Diario Página Siete, 2014, Gobierno—Hay 100 cooperativas de élite con contratos millonarios [Government—There are 100 cooperatives with lucrative contracts]: Diario Página Siete [La Paz, Bolivia], April 10. (Accessed January 13, 2016, at http://www.paginasiete.bo/economia/ 2014/4/10/gobierno-cooperativas-elite-contratos-millonarios-18485.html.)

3.6 [ADVANCE RELEASE]

Dyson, Jonathan, 2012, Bolivia steps up, in Olett, John, ed., Critical materials for green energy—Industrial Minerals supplement, September, p. 8–9. George, M.W., 2014, Silver: U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries 2014, p. 146–147. Gonzálo, C.A., 2013, Ingresos fiscales por explotación de hidrocarburos en Bolivia: Washington, DC, Inter-American Development Bank, September, 49 p. (Accessed September 1, 2014, at http://publications.iadb.org/bitstream/ handle/11319/1502/RRNN_Bolivia.pdf;jsessionid=672DE3D41D0A8D03E9 47FE517116DBD8.) Guberman, D.E., 2014a, Antimony: U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries 2014, p. 18–19. Guberman, D.E., 2014b, Lead: U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries 2014, p. 90–91. IHS Inc., 2014, New Bolivian mining code will reduce legal uncertainty but increase likelihood of short-term civil unrest: IHS Inc., April 10. (Accessed December 3, 2014, at http://www.ihs.com/products/global-insight/ industry-economic-report.aspx?id=1065988423.) Instituto Boliviano de Comercio Exterior, 2014, Bolivia—Economía y comercio exterior: Instituto Boliviano de Comercio Exterior Boletín Electrónico Bisemenal 338, August 4, 3 p. (Accessed November 21, 2014, at http://ibce.org.bo/images/ibcecifras_documentos/CIFRAS-338-Boliviaeconomia-comercio-exterior.pdf.) ITRI Ltd., 2013, Huanuni mill expansion well advanced: Frogmore, United Kingdom, ITRI Ltd., September 27. (Accessed November 2, 2014, at http://www.itri.co.uk/index.php?option=com_zoo&task=item&item_ id=2869&Itemid=143.) ITRI, Ltd., 2014a, Big plans for Bolivian state tin companies: Frogmore, United Kingdom, ITRI Ltd., February 28. (Accessed November 2, 2014, at http://www.itri.co.uk/index.php?option=com_zoo&task=item&item_ id=2975&Itemid=143.) ITRI Ltd., 2014b, Tin top ten 2013—ITRI survey: Frogmore, United Kingdom, ITRI Ltd., March 6. (Accessed November 2, 2014, at http://www.itri.co.uk/ index.php?option=com_zoo&task=item&item_id=2978&Itemid=143.) ITRI Ltd., 2014c, Victory Mines acquires South American Tin: Frogmore, United Kingdom, ITRI Ltd., October 20. (Accessed November 2, 2014, at http://www.itri.co.uk/index.php?option=com_zoo&task=item&item_ id=3096&Itemid=149.) Jamasmie, Cecilia, 2013, Bolivia to open bids for world’s biggest iron ore deposit: Mining.com, September 2. (Accessed December 2, 2014, at http://www.mining.com/bolivia-to-open-bids-for-worlds-biggest-iron-oredeposit-63017.) Kovars, Bethany, 2013, Exploration lacking in Bolivia, shortage of new projects due to pending mining bill: Business News Americas, June 24. (Accessed October 16, 2014, via http://subscriber.bnamericas.com/Subscriber/index.jsp? idioma=I&tipoContenido=detalle&pagina=content&idContenido=620411& tipoDocumento=1.) Latinomineria, 2014, Bolivia—Promulgan Ley 367 que sanciona avasallamiento minero: Latinomineria, May 6. (Accessed November 30, 2014, at http://www.latinomineria.com/2013/05/bolivia-promulgan-ley-367-quesanciona-avasallamiento-minero.) Lefebvre, Stephan, and Bonifaz, Jeanette, 2014, Lessons from Bolivia— Renationalizing the hydrocarbon industry: Center for Economic and Policy Research, November 24. (Accessed November 28, 2014, at http://www.cepr.net/index.php/op-eds-&-columns/op-eds-&-columns/ lessons-from-bolivia-re-nationalizing-the-hydrocarbon-industry.) Lonergan, Kieran, 2013, Morales approves performance-related bonus for Bolivia’s Colquiri miners: Business News Americas, October 25. (Accessed December 2, 2014, via http://subscriber.bnamericas.com/Subscriber/ index.jsp?idioma=I&tipoContenido=detalle&pagina=content&idContenido= 630310&tipoDocumento=1.) Ministerio Hydrocarburos y Energía, 2014, Memoria institucional 2013: La Paz, Bolivia, Ministerio Hydrocarburos y Energía, June, 115 p. Ministerio de Minería y Metalurgia, 2014, Potosí recibe el 58% regalía mineras del país: La Paz, Bolivia, Ministerio de Minería y Metalurgia Boletín de Prensa, 69, April 24, 1 p. (Accessed November 7, 2014, at http://www.mineria.gob.bo/Documentos/Difusion/5.pdf.) Morales, J.A., and Sachs, J.D., 1987, Bolivia’s economic crisis, chap. 3 of Sachs, J.D., ed., Developing country debt and the world economy: National Bureau of Economic Research, p. 57–79. (Accessed November 12, 2014, at http://www.nber.org/chapters/c7520.pdf.)

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2013

Ramos, Daniel, 2012, Bolivia says mining reform will not affect Sumitomo: Thomson Reuters, August 23. (Accessed January 12, 2014, at http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/08/23/bolivia-mining-sumitomoidUKL2E8JN8LG20120823.) Shedd, K.B., 2014, Tungsten: U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries 2014, p. 174–175. Tolcin, A.C., 2014a, Tin: U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries 2014, p. 168–169. Tolcin, A.C., 2014b, Zinc: U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries 2014, p. 186–187. Tri-Star Resources Plc, 2012, Antimony primer: Tri-Star Resources Plc, 14 p. (Accessed December 2, 2014, at http://www.tri-starresources.com/antimony.) U.S. Department of State, 2014, 2014 investment climate statement— Bolivia: U.S. Department of State, 26 p. (Accessed December 2, 2014, at http://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2014/index.htm#2014search.) United Nations Statistics Division, 2014, United Nations commodity trade statistics database: United Nations Statistics Division database. (Accessed December 2, 2014, at http://comtrade.un.org/d.)

Victory Mines Ltd., 2014, South American Tin progresses environmental and social activities to advance Bolivian tin projects: Perth, Western Australia, Australia, Victory Mines Ltd. ASX announcement, March 20, 3 p. Viswanathan, Rengaraj, 2013, Lessons from India Jindal’s Bolivian investment failure: MercoPress, July 20. (Accessed December 2, 2014, at http://en.mercopress.com/2013/07/20/lessons-from-india-jindal-s-bolivianinvestment-failure.) Watts, Mark, 2011, Lithium reality check: Industrial Minerals, no. 523, April, p. 39–47. Williams, Samuel, 2013, Comibol “breached the law” in threat to develop Himalaya project—Report: Business News Americas, June 26. (Accessed December 2, 2014, via http://subscriber.bnamericas.com/Subscriber/ index.jsp?idioma=I&tipoContenido=detalle&pagina=content&idContenido= 620642&tipoDocumento=1.)

TABLE 1 BOLIVIA: PRODUCTION OF MINERAL COMMODITIES1 (Metric tons unless otherwise specified) Commodity2 METALS

2009

2010

2011

2012

Antimony: Mine output, Sb content Metal, smelter3

2,990

4,980

3,947

5,088

419

372

370

r

Trioxide, Sb content3

369

351

1,972

3,239

3,132

3,974

r

3,942

115

155

99

103

r

120

882 215

2,063 895

4,176 1,034

4,976 904

r

7,549 1,271

7,217 3,667

6,394 2,430

6,513 1,786

7,047 1,681

r

84,538 418

72,803 310

100,051 269

81,095 250

r

1,259,388 225,211 3,416

1,213,586 258,756 17,439

1,205,804 185,571 41,604

r

19,575 15,006 1,023 430,879

20,190 15,003 1,204 411,409

20,373 14,295 1,124 427,129

19,702 14,626 1,573 389,911

2,069 323 1,124 11,114

7,845 440 485 12,619

21,297 591 221 13,742

19,725 745 200 14,892

Arsenic trioxide3 Copper: Mine output, Cu content Metal, primary Gold: Mine output, Au content4 Metal, including Au content of bullion and dore Lead: Mine output, Pb content Metal, smelter, primary Silver: Mine output, Ag content5 Metal, including Ag content of bullion and dore Tantalum, tantalite, gross weight Tin: Mine output, Sn content Metal, smelter Tungsten, mine output, W content Zinc, mine output, Zn content INDUSTRIAL MINERALS Barite Bentonite Borax Boric acid

kilograms do.

kilograms do. do.

1,325,729 33,000 --

e

2013

5,081

r

r

e

r

6,751 1,266 82,131 330 1,287,200 187,559 46,558

r

19,287 14,862 1,580 407,331

e

20,000 525 200 14,985

r

r

e

e e e

See footnotes at end of table.

BOLIVIA—2013 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 3.7

TABLE 1—Continued BOLIVIA: PRODUCTION OF MINERAL COMMODITIES1 (Metric tons unless otherwise specified) Commodity2 INDUSTRIAL MINERALS—Continued

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

thousand metric tons do.

1,568 2,292

1,556 2,414

1,757 2,658

1,867 2,714

1,700 2,500

e

Amethyst kilograms Ametrine (bolivianite) do. Gypsum, crude Rock salt Stone, natural: Granite Limestone Marble Slate (pizarra) Ulexite MINERAL FUELS AND RELATED MATERIALS Gas, natural: Gross million cubic meters Marketable (net) do. Natural gas liquids thousand 42-gallon barrels Petroleum: Crude do. Refinery products: Liquefied petroleum gas do. Gasoline:

503,045 10 1,931 1,947

485,390 669 556 1,218

480,484 16,819 698 1,968

97,255 59 594 2,461

400,000 100 600 2,000

e

62 26 32 190 85,530

44 111 65 63 97,303

-195 40 104 135,068

23 200 265 141 127,638

13,411 12,787 2,650

15,227 14,923 3,055

16,437 16,186 3,310

18,706 18,475 3,931

Cement: Clinker Hydraulic Gemstones, rough:

Aviation Motor Jet fuel Kerosene Distillate fuel oil, including diesel fuel oil Lubricants: Oil, including automotive and industrial Greases6 Asphalt6

r

12,329 297

r

12,607 r

289

r

12,958 r

283

r

r r r

r

15,086 r

e e

e

18,247 17,810 4,303 15,177

282

r

361

do.

14

4

28

45

r

41

do. do. do. do.

5,362 1,046 125 4,053

5,489 1,096 127 4,035

5,429 1,182 128 4,275

5,924 1,052 121 4,590

r

6,707 1,301 107 5,192

do.

140

144

149

156

r

do.

2

3

3

3

r r r

do. 15 12 11 12 Total do. 11,054 r 11,199 r 11,488 r 12,185 r e Estimated; estimated data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown. rRevised. do. Ditto. -- Zero. 1 Table includes data available through August 6, 2014. 2 In addition to the commodities listed, bismuth, indium, iron ore, manganese and a variety of industrial minerals (clays, crushed and broken stone, dimension stone, lime, sand and gravel, native sulfur, and quartz) were produced, but available information is inadequate to make reliable estimates of output. 3 Exported production. 4 May include production of metallic gold. 5 May include production of metallic silver. 6 Reported figures were converted from metric tons to equivalent barrels.

3.8 [ADVANCE RELEASE]

17 200 27 112 149,818

e

165 3 12 13,889

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2013

TABLE 2 BOLIVIA: STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN 2013 (Metric tons unless otherwise specified)

Commodity Antimony

Major operating companies and major equity owners Empresa Minera Unificada S.A. (EMUSA) (private, 100%) Small-scale mining operations and cooperatives (private, 100%)

Do.

Do.

Shrewton Investments Ltd., 70%, and Raptor Ventures LLC (Planet Resource Recovery Inc., 100%), 30%

Antimony, metal (regulus)

Empresa Metalúrgica Vinto (Government, 100%)

Antimony, metal

Operaciones Metalúrgicas S.A. (OMSA)

Do.

Fundestaño de Oruro S.A. (Empresa Minera Unificada S.A., 100%) Empresa Minera Bernal Hermanos S.A. (private, 100%) Cooperativa Minera Locatarios Tasna Ltda. Corporación Minera de Bolivia (COMIBOL) (Government, 100%)

Antimony trioxide Bismuth Bismuth, refined Do. Cement

Empresa Metalúrgica Vinto (Government, 100%) thousand metric tons

Do.

do.

Do. Do. Copper

do. do.

Do. Do. Gemstones, ametrine Gold

kilograms

Do. Do. Do. Gold-silver dore, bullion, Ag content

Sociedad Boliviana de Cemento S.A. (SOBOCE) (Consorcio Cementero del Sur S.A., 47.02%, and other private, 52.98%) Fábrica Nacional de Cemento S.A. (Chuquisaca Provincial Government, 33.34%; Municipal Government of Sucre, 33.33%; Universidad San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca, 33.33%) Cooperativa Boliviana de Cemento Ltda. (COBOCE) ITACAMBA Cemento S.A. Pan American Silver Corp., 95%, and Trafigura Baheer B.V., 5% Corporación Minera de Bolivia (COMIBOL) (Government, 55%, and Korea Resources Corp., 45%) Small-scale mining operations and cooperatives (private, 100%) Minerales y Metales del Oriente S.R.L. Empresa Minera Paititi S.A. {Orvana Minerals Corp. [Fabulosa Mines Ltd. (Minera S.A., 100%), 52.5%, and other private, 47.5%], 100%}

do. do. do.

Golden Eagle International Inc. (private, 100%) Grupo Minero La Roca S.A. (private, 100%) Mining cooperatives (private, 100%)

do.

Empresa Minera Inti Raymi S.A. (Compañía Procesadora de Minerales S.A., 88%, and Empresa Minera Unificada S.A., 12%) Corporación Minera de Bolivia (Government, 100%), 50%, and Sinchi Wayra S.A. (Glencore Xstrata plc, 100%), 50% Sinchi Wayra S.A. (Glencore Xstrata plc, 100%)

Indium, run of mine

Do. Do. Do.

Pan American Silver Corp., 95%, and Trafigura Baheer B.V., 5% Empresa Minera Colquiri [Corporación Minera de Bolivia (Government, 100%), 100%]

Location of main facilities Caracota, Chilcobija, and Espiritu Santo Mines, Potosi Department San Jose Mine, Oruro Department; mines in Caracota District, Nor Chichas, Quijarro, and Sud Chichas Provinces, Potosi Department San Antonio de Turiri Mine, Potosi Department Vinto antimony plant, Carretera Vinto, Oruro Department Huajara Industrial Park, east of Oruro, Oruro Department City of Oruro, Oruro Department Palala smelter, Tupiza, Potosi Department Tasna Mine, near Oruro, Oruro Department Telamayu bismuth refinery, Telamayu, Potosi Department Vinto smelting complex, Carretera Vinto, Oruro Department El Puente (near Tarija), EMISA (near Oruro), VIACHA (near La Paz), and WARNES (near Santa Cruz) plants Cal Orcko industrial complex near Sucre, including grinding plant, and FANCESA cement plant near Chuquisaca Irpa Irpa plant, near Cochabamba Plant, Santa Cruz Department San Vicente Mine, Potosi Department Coro Coro Mine, La Paz Department Mining operations in Chuquisaca, La Paz, Oruro, and Potosi Departments Anahi Mine, Santa Cruz Department Don Mario Mine, Chiquitos Province, Santa Cruz Department Cangalli Mine, Santa Cruz Department La Paz Department Tipuani, Guanay, Mapiri, Huayta, Kaka, and Teoponte Rivers, La Paz Department Kori Chaca open pit mine and Kori Kollo leaching plant, near Oruro

Annual capacitye 1,100 4,500

NA 6,000 3,000 1,100 1,900 200 350 90 1,800

1,100

825 180 350 3,600 650 NA 2,100

150 200 4,350 4,100

Bolivar Mine, Potosi Department

35

Colquechaquita-San Lorenzo and Porco Mines, Potosi Department San Vicente Mine, Potosi Department

35

Colquiri tin and zinc mine, Inquisivi Province, La Paz Department

5

15

See footnotes at end of table.

BOLIVIA—2013 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 3.9

TABLE 2—Continued BOLIVIA: STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN 2013 (Metric tons unless otherwise specified)

Commodity

Do.

Major operating companies and major equity owners Corporación Minera de Bolivia, 50%, and Sinchi Wayra S.A., 50% Empresa Minera San Cristóbal S.A. (Sumitomo Corp., 100%) Corporación Minera de Bolivia, 100%

Do.

Sinchi Wayra S.A. (Glencore Xstrata plc, 100%)

Do.

Empresa Minera La Solución Ltda.

Do.

Empresa Minera Santa Lucia Ltda.

Lead Do.

Lead, metal

Empresa Metalúrgica Vinto (Government, 100%)

Do. Natural gas

million cubic meters

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Petroleum

Do.

thousand 42-gallon barrels

do.

Empresa Metalúrgica de Karachipampa (Corporación Minera de Bolivia, 100%) Operated by Empresa Petrolera Andina S.A. (YPFB Andina S.A. [Government, 100%], 51.08%, and Repsol YPF, S.A., 48.92%) and owned by Empresa Petrolera Andina, S.A., 50%; Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., 35%; Total S.A., 15% Operated by Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. (Petrobras) (Brazilian Government, 32.2%; private, 67.8%), and owned by Empresa Petrolera Andina S.A., 50%; Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., 35%; Total S.A., 15% Operated by Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. (Petrobras) (Brazilian Government, 32.2%; private, 67.8%), and operation license owned by Total S.A., 41%; Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., 30%; BG Group plc., 25%; YPFB Chaco S.A., 4% Operated and owned by YPFB Chaco S.A. (Government, 100%)

Operated by Repsol YPF, S.A., and owned by BG Group plc., 37.5%, Repsol YPF S.A., 37.5%; Pan American Energy LLC (BP p.l.c., 60%; BRIDAS Corp., 40%), 25% Operated and owned by BG Group plc., 100%

Operated by Pluspetrol Bolivia Corporation S.A. (owned by Pluspetrol S.A., 100%) Operated by Vintage Petroleum Boliviana Ltda. (owned by Occidental Petroleum Corp., 100%) Operated by Empresa Petrolera Andina S.A. (YPFB Andina S.A. [Government, 100%], 51.08%; Repsol YPF, S.A., 48.92%) and owned by Empresa Petrolera Andina, S.A., 50%, Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., 35%; Total S.A., 15% Operated by Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. (Petrobras) (Brazilian Government, 32.2%; private, 67.8%), and owned by Empresa Petrolera Andina S.A., 50%; Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., 35%; Total S.A., 15%

Location of main facilities Bolivar Mine, Potosi Department

Annual capacitye 15,000

San Cristobal Mine, southwestern Bolivia

82,000

Cerro Rico Mine, Potosi Department, and in areas immediately surrounding the San Cristobal Mine

10,200

Caballo Blanco group of mines (ColquechaquitaSan Lorenzo, Reserva, and Tres Amigos Mines), and Porco Mine, Potosi Department; and Poópo Mine, Oruro Department Asientos and Monserrate lead, silver, and zinc mines, Cochabamba Department Santa Lucia lead-silver-zinc mine, Potosi Department Vinto smelting complex, Carretera Vinto, Oruro Department Karachipampa lead and silver smelter and zinc refinery, Potosi Department Los Sauces, Rio Grande, Sirari, Vibora, and Yapacani fields, Santa Cruz Department

15,000

Sabalo field, San Antonio Block; San Alberto field and Block, Tarija Department

Itaú field, Block XX Tarija Oeste, Tarija Department

Vuelta Grande field, Chuquisaca Department; Bulo Bulo, Carrasco, and Kanata fields, on the border of Cochabamba and Santa Cruz Departments Margarita field, Caipipendi Block, Tarija Department; Paloma field, Mamore Block, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz Departments La Vertiente, Escondido, and Taiguati fields, La Vertiente Block; Los Suris field and Block, all in Tarija Department Bermejo and Madrejones fields, Tarija Department; Tacobo field, Santa Cruz Department Chaco Sur and Ñupuco fields, Tarija Department; Naranjillos field, Santa Cruz Department Los Sauces, Rio Grande, Sirari, Vibora, and Yapacani fields, Santa Cruz Department

Sabalo field, San Antonio Block; San Alberto field and Block, Tarija Department

610 200 120 30,000 2,700

7,200

NA

2,200

1,300

630

520 350 2,100

7,500

See footnotes at end of table. 3.10 [ADVANCE RELEASE]

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2013

TABLE 2—Continued BOLIVIA: STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN 2013 (Metric tons unless otherwise specified)

Commodity Petroleum— thousand Continued 42-gallon barrels Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Silver Do.

kilograms do.

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Do. Do. Silver, metal Do. Do. Do. Tin Do. Do.

Major operating companies and major equity owners Operated and owned by YPFB Chaco S.A. (Government, 100%)

Operated by Repsol YPF, S.A., and owned by BG Group plc., 37.5%; Repsol YPF S.A., 37.5%; Pan American Energy LLC (BP p.l.c., 60%; BRIDAS Corp., 40%), 25% Operated and owned by BG Group plc., 100%

Location of main facilities Vuelta Grande field, Chuquisaca Department; Bulo Bulo, Carrasco, and Kanata fields, on the border of Cochabamba and Santa Cruz Departments Margarita field, Caipipendi Block, Tarija Department; Paloma field, Mamore Block, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz Departments

La Vertiente, Escondido, and Taiguati fields, La Vertiente Block; Los Suris field and Block, all in Tarija Department Operated by Pluspetrol Bolivia Corporation S.A. Bermejo and Madrejones fields, Tarija Department; (Pluspetrol S.A., 100%) Tacobo field, Santa Cruz Department Operated by Vintage Petroleum Boliviana Ltda. Chaco Sur and Ñupuco fields, Tarija Department; (Occidental Petroleum Corp., 100%) Naranjillos field, Santa Cruz Department Empresa Minera San Cristóbal S.A. (Sumitomo Corp., 100%) San Cristobal Mine, southwestern Bolivia Empresa Minera Manquiri S.A. (Coeur d'Alene Mines San Bartolome Mine, by Cerro Rico, near Potosi, Corp., 100%) Potosi Department Small-scale mining operations and cooperatives Candelaria and other mines, Cerro Rico deposit, (private, 100%) as well as in areas immediately surrounding the San Bartolome Mine (under construction), Oruro and Potosi Departments Sinchi Wayra S.A., 50%, and Corporacion Minera de Caballo Blanco group of mines (ColquechaquitaBolivia (COMIBOL), 50% San Lorenzo, Reserva, and Tres Amigos Mines), and Porco Mine, Potosi Department; and Poópo Mine, Oruro Department Empresa Minera Santa Lucia Ltda. Santa Lucia lead, silver, and zinc mine, Potosi Department Don Mario Mine, Chiquitos Province, Empresa Minera Paititi S.A. {Orvana Minerals Corp. [Fabulosa Mines Ltd. (Minera S.A., 100%), 52.5%, and Santa Cruz Department other private, 47.5%], 100%} Empresa Minera La Solución Ltda. Asientos and Monserrate lead, silver, and zinc mines, Cochabamba Department Corporación Minera de Bolivia (Government, 100%), 50%; Bolivar Mine, Potosi Department and Sinchi Wayra S.A. (Glencore Xstrata plc, 100%), 50% Empresa Minera Huanuni [Corporación Minera de Bolivia Cerro Rico Mine, Potosi Department (Government, 100%), 100%] Empresa Metalúrgica de Karachipampa (Corporación Minera Karachipampa lead and silver smelter and zinc refinery, Potosi Department de Bolivia, 100%) Empresa Minera Manquiri S.A. San Bartolome Mine and plant, by Cerro Rico, (Coeur d'Alene Mines Corp., 100%) near Potosi, Potosi Department Pan American Silver Corp., 95%, and Trafigura San Vicente Mine, Potosi Department Baheer B.V., 5% Empresa Metalúrgica Vinto (Government, 100%) Vinto smelting complex, Carretera Vinto, Oruro Department Empresa Minera Huanuni [Corporación Minera de Bolivia Huanuni Mine, Dalence Province, Oruro (Government, 100%), 100%] Department Empresa Minera Colquiri [Corporación Minera de Bolivia (Government, 100%), 100%] Empresa Minera Barrosquira Ltda. (private, 100%)

Colquiri tin and zinc mine, Inquisivi Province, La Paz Department Caracoles Mine, Inquisivi Province, La Paz Department

Annual capacitye 2,900

5,000

610

160 140 526,000 280,000 280,000

180,000

30,000 7,500

2,000 NA NA 310 NA 130 2 10,000 6,000 500

See footnotes at end of table.

BOLIVIA—2013 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 3.11

TABLE 2—Continued BOLIVIA: STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN 2013 (Metric tons unless otherwise specified)

Commodity Tin—Continued

Major operating companies and major equity owners Small-scale mining operations and cooperatives (private, 100%)

Tin, refined

Empresa Metalúrgica Vinto (Government, 100%)

Do.

Operaciones Metalúrgicas S.A. (OMSA)

Tin-lead alloys

Empresa Metalúrgica Vinto (Government, 100%)

Tungsten, W content

Empresa Minera Himalaya [Corporación Minera de Bolivia (Government, 100%), 100%] Small-scale mining operations and cooperatives (private, 100%)

Do.

Zinc Do.

Empresa Minera San Cristóbal S.A. (Sumitomo Corp., 100%) Sinchi Wayra S.A., 50%, and Corporacion Minera de Bolivia (COMIBOL), 50%

Do.

Corporación Minera de Bolivia, 100%

Do.

Empresa Minera Colquiri [Corporación Minera de Bolivia (Government, 100%), 100%] Empresa Minera Santa Lucia Ltda.

Do. Do. Do. Do.

Pan American Silver Corp., 95%, and Trafigura Baheer B.V., 5% Empresa Minera La Solución Ltda.

Annual capacitye Location of main facilities Caracoles, Huanuni, Viloco, and other current or 10,000 former Corporación Minera de Bolivia mines, in Oruro, Potosi, and La Paz Departments Vinto smelting complex, Carretera Vinto, 12,000 Oruro Department Huajara Industrial Park, east of Oruro, 3,360 Oruro Department Vinto smelting complex, Carretera Vinto, 200 Oruro Department Himalaya Mine, Murillo Province, NA La Paz Department Bolsa Negra, Enramada, Reconquistada Mines, 1,200 near the former International Mining Co.'s Chojilla Mine, Sud Yungas Province; Chambilaya and Chicote Grande Mines, Inquisivi Province; Mercedes, San Antonio, Ucumarini Mines, Larecaja Province, La Paz Department San Cristobal Mine, southwestern Bolivia Caballo Blanco group of mines (ColquechaquitaSan Lorenzo, Reserva, and Tres Amigos Mines), and Porco Mine, Potosi Department; and Poópo Mine, Oruro Department Cerro Rico Mine, Potosi Department, and in areas immediately surrounding the San Cristobal Mine Colquiri tin and zinc mine, Inquisivi Province, La Paz Department Santa Lucia lead, silver, and zinc mine, Potosi Department San Vicente Mine, Potosi Department Asientos and Monserrate lead, silver, and zinc mines, Cochabamba Department

Corporación Minera de Bolivia, 50%, and Bolivar Mine, Potosi Department Sinchi Wayra S.A., 50% Zinc, refined Empresa Metalúrgica de Karachipampa (Corporación Minera Karachipampa lead and silver smelter and zinc refinery, Potosi Department de Bolivia, 100%) e Estimated; estimated data are rounded to no more than three significant digits. Do., do. Ditto. NA Not available.

3.12 [ADVANCE RELEASE]

270,000 205,000

85,000 14,000 12,000 6,000 1,300 NA 70,000

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2013

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The Mineral Industry of Bolivia in 2013 - USGS Mineral Resources

2013 Minerals Yearbook BOLIVIA [ADVANCE RELEASE] U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey January 2016 The Mineral Industry of Boliv...

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