Insights for clients invested in their financial futures • Fall 2015
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2 FROM THE WEB
Explore Onward and more online.
3 CEO’S NOTE Why investors shouldn’t be too complacent about inflation. By Walt Bettinger
4 THE BOTTOM LINE
Low-volatility ETFs, negative interest rates and more.
10 YOUR NETWORK Windhaven aims for sustained performance with less volatility. PERSPECTIVES
5 RETIREMENT-PLANNING MYTHS
Don’t let optimistic expectations put your retirement at risk.
Commodities’ recent struggles shouldn’t overshadow their long-term appeal.
GETTING TO KNOW DIVIDEND STOCKS Dividend-paying stocks may offer value even if rates rise.
34 A WORKING RELATIONSHIP
Schwab Financial Consultants help you stay focused.
Cover Illustration: Mark Smith
16 Bonds Prepare your bond portfolio for rising rates. By Kathy Jones
How the markets may react to the latest partisan gridlock. By Michael Townsend
INFORMATION SECURITY Schwab is always working to keep your personal information—and your money—safe.
18 International Emerging markets could offer growth and diversification. By Jeffrey Kleintop
20 Trading How to use stop orders to help protect profits. By Randy Frederick SPOTLIGHT
41 Products Schwab Bank’s debit card can help you travel with confidence.
42 Research Where to find our experts’ mutual fund and ETF selections online.
48 ON YOUR SIDE Waiting for the “right” time to invest can be costly. By Charles R. Schwab
Onward (ISSN 2330-3514) is published quarterly. This publication is mailed at Standard A postal rates. If you prefer not to receive Onward, please call 877-908-0065. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Onward, Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., P.O. Box 52114, Phoenix, AZ 85072–2114. Onward does not assume any liability resulting from actions taken based on the information included in this magazine. Mention of a company or security does not constitute endorsement. Some contributors to Onward may have active positions in securities or companies discussed in this issue. NWS73437Q315
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FROM THE WEB:
Is a Phased Retirement Right for You?
Onward is now available as part of Insights & Ideas on schwab.com. You can ﬁnd the same smart, helpful insights you’re used to—whether you’re on a desktop computer, a tablet or a mobile phone. - Explore the magazine and more at schwab.com/OMinsights. - Sign up to receive email alerts when a new issue of Onward is available at schwab.com/OMpaperless.
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BOARD OF ADVISORS
Jonathan Craig Executive Vice President Chief Marketing Officer
HERE’S A SAMPLE OF SOME RECENT ARTICLES ON INSIGHTS & IDEAS:
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Mark W. Riepe, CFA Senior Vice President Schwab Center for Financial Research
Portfolio Repair: A Case for Rebalancing
Helen Loh Senior Vice President Content & Client Marketing
Larry Hanback Vice President Marketing Strategy & Operations
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MARKETS AND ECONOMY
Investing Basics: How Chasing Returns Can Sabotage Your Savings
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Stephanie May ASSOCIATE MANAGING EDITOR
Walt Bettinger Randy Frederick Kathy Jones Jeffrey Kleintop Charles R. Schwab Michael Townsend
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©Schwab Photo Library
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Inflation and the Long View Why investors shouldn’t be too complacent about rising prices.
©Schwab Photo Library
nflation has been so low for so long that investors could easily have become complacent about the impact of this value-eroding force on their portfolios. That would be a serious mistake. Even relatively mild inflation has a significant effect on your investments over time. Some inflation can be a good thing for the economy. A steady rise in prices can encourage spending by consumers and businesses. And working people usually don’t mind a bit of inflation, as wage increases tend to keep pace with rising consumer prices. It’s a different story for savers and retirees. After all, money loses value because of inflation—prices nearly tripled between 1980 and the end of 20141—and rising prices eat away at the real returns on your investments. Ever since the financial crisis, the annual rate of inflation has generally been below 2%. But if you go back a few decades, things start to look a little different. The average annual inflation rate was about 3.5% between 1980 and 2014. Your investment returns over that period would have had to match that rate just to keep your portfolio treading water. To build wealth, of course, you need to do better. And the recent era of low interest rates hasn’t helped.
The good news is that there are several precautions you can take to help insulate your portfolio against inflation. Stocks have historically delivered solid inflation-adjusted returns. You could also consider adding Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) to your bond portfolio. The coupon rate on TIPS is fixed, but the principal value is adjusted to keep pace with inflation— so interest payments fluctuate along with inflation. Real estate and commodities can also help protect a portfolio against rising prices. So check in with a Schwab representative to find out what steps you could take to add inflationhedging features to your portfolio. Inflation may not seem like a major problem now, but experienced investors know that they can’t ignore it—even moderate annual changes can have a big impact over time. Sincerely,
The good news is “that there are several precautions you can take to help insulate your portfolio against inflation.
President & CEO
1 Bureau of Labor Statistics data as of 4/23/2015. Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) are inflation-linked securities issued by the U.S. government whose principal value is adjusted periodically in accordance with the rise and fall in the inflation rate. Thus, the interest amount payable is also impacted by variations in the inflation rate as it is based upon the principal value of the bond. It may fluctuate up or down. Repayment at maturity is guaranteed by the U.S government and may be adjusted for inflation to become the greater of either the original face amount at issuance or that face amount plus an adjustment for inflation. ©2015 Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. All rights reserved. Member SIPC. (0915-3780)
8/24/15 11:11 AM
T h e b o tt o m l i n e
Low-volatility ETFs try to mitigate big market swings.
S Let’s Talk Call your Schwab Consultant to discuss whether low-volatility ETFs are right for your portfolio.
tock market volatility has been part of the investing landscape in 2015. This volatility has pushed some investors into low-volatility exchange-traded funds (ETFs), which seek to minimize the effect of large market swings. The assets in such ETFs jumped by about 26% in the first four and a half months of the year.1 Low-volatility ETFs have been around for less than five years, but have already attracted $18.4 billion in assets.2 Low-volatility ETFs generally work in one of two ways. One type screens and weights the stocks included in an index—such as the S&P 500® Index— according to their volatility. The least volatile stocks are given larger weightings. This usually means including more utility and consumer staples stocks, which tend to experience smaller price movements than stocks in other sectors. The other type of low-volatility ETF includes a broader universe of stocks and weights them based on
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Morningstar Direct as of 4/20/2015. Ibid.
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See page 46 for important information. Investors should consider carefully information contained in the prospectus, including investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. You can request a prospectus by calling Schwab at 800-435-4000. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing. Charles Schwab Investment Advisory, Inc. (“CSIA”) is an affiliate of Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. (“Schwab”). (0915-3248)
In Search of a Smoother Ride
how correlated, or linked, their price movements are with each other. While such ETFs don’t explicitly avoid volatility per se, their weighting methodology tends to result in holdings that negate each other’s price swings. This can result in less-volatile performance, whether the market is rising or falling. Whether low-volatility ETFs make sense for you depends on your expectations for the market and your returns, says Michael Iachini, Managing Director of ETF and Mutual Fund Research at Charles Schwab Investment Advisory, Inc. “Lowvolatility ETFs may be right for investors who aren’t necessarily pessimistic about the market but who would prefer to avoid large swings in the value of their portfolio,” he says. One thing to consider with these ETFs is that limiting losses likely limits gains as well. In other words, when you invest in low-volatility ETFs you could be giving up some potential upside when markets are rising. “In a long-running bull market, lower volatility funds typically have a hard time keeping up,” Michael says. Depending on the market segment, low-volatility ETFs may also have higher operating expenses than standard index funds, Michael says. That is because minimizing volatility generally requires more frequent rebalancing. For example, ETFs weighting U.S. large-capitalization companies by volatility tend to have higher expenses than other U.S. large-cap stock ETFs. -
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ETF Expenses to Watch
Small differences in fees can add up.
t’s easy to see why exchange-traded funds (ETFs) are popular. They can offer exceptional liquidity and are a relatively inexpensive way to gain exposure to a variety of asset classes. But some ETFs are cheaper than others. Here are three expenses to watch. Commissions. Because ETFs trade on an exchange, you may have to pay a commission when you buy or sell one. Though some ETFs are available commission-free, many are not. Operating expenses. These costs are generally levied at an annual rate known as an operating expense ratio (OER). Such fees cover the day-to-day costs of managing the ETF’s assets, administration and other costs. Investors don’t pay these fees directly. Rather, fund managers deduct the operating expenses daily from an ETF’s total average assets. OERs are listed in an ETF’s prospectus. They can vary widely: from as little as a few basis points to as much as a few percentage points, with some ETFs charging up to 3.87%.1 Even small differences in fees can have a big impact on your portfolio over time. For example, imagine you invested $100,000 in an ETF with an OER of 0.1%. Assuming an annual return of 6% and no other fees, after 20 years your investment would have risen to $314,360.2 Now imagine you invested the same amount
Less Than Zero Negative European bond yields are intensifying the global search for yield.
hy would anyone buy a bond with a negative rate of return? It’s a question investors in some European country bonds are grappling with after yields dipped below zero in recent months. That means investors are paying countries for the privilege of lending them money. Unfortunately for U.S. investors, the effects of negative yields aren’t restricted to the market for euro bonds. Negative yields overseas may be drawing more income-seeking global investors to the U.S. bond market, where yields are still
in an ETF with an annual OER of 0.5%. After 20 years, you’d have just $290,121. Do the The bid/ask spread. The difference Research between the price at which an ETF can To compare ETF costs, be sold (“bid”) and the price at which an log in to schwab.com/ ETF can be bought (“ask”) is an oftenOMETFscreener and overlooked cost. It is built into the market select “basic criteria.” price and is paid on each roundtrip purchase and sale of an ETF. The larger the spread and the more frequently you trade, the more relevant this cost becomes. Factors driving bid/ask spreads can include market liquidity and inventory-management costs recouped by the market makers who facilitate ETF trades. Bid/ask spreads tend to be lower for more actively traded and more liquid ETFs. 1 Charles Schwab analysis of ETF annual report data in Morningstar Direct as of 4/16/2015. 2 Based on calculations using the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority’s Fund Analyzer. Results are hypothetical.
See page 46 for important information. Investors should consider carefully information contained in the prospectus, including investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. You can request a prospectus by calling Schwab at 800-435-4000. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing. Investment returns will fluctuate and are subject to market volatility, so that an investor’s shares, when redeemed or sold, may be worth more or less than their original cost. Unlike mutual funds, shares of ETFs are not individually redeemable directly with the ETF. Shares are bought and sold at market price, which may be higher or lower than the net asset value. (0915-3311)
above zero. That extra demand may be suppressing Treasury yields. Once a rare occurrence, negative yields on bonds have now become quite common. More than $1.9 trillion of the euro region’s government securities had a negative yield at the end of February.1 What’s causing it? To help fight off deflation and spur economic growth, central banks in Europe have adopted negative interest rates in the hope banks will start lending more to consumers and businesses. Meanwhile, the European Central Bank cranked up a sovereign bond-buying program to further stimulate the economy. As a result, yields on bonds tumbled from already low levels. Most of the demand for such bonds comes from institutions that are required to allocate a portion of their holdings to state-issued securities.
Kathy Jones, Senior Vice President and Chief Fixed Income Strategist at the Schwab Center for Financial Research, says most individual investors would be better off staying away. She notes that Treasuries remain a better choice—yields are low, but they still have a way to go before they fall below zero—and cash might be the next best option. -
Let’s Talk For help with your bond investments, call your Schwab Consultant or contact our dedicated Fixed Income Specialists at 800-942-9084. David Goodman and Lukanyo Mnyanda, “Euro-Area Negative-Yield Bond Universe Expands to $1.9 Trillion,” Bloomberg, 2/28/2015.
See page 46 for important information. (0915-3358)
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your index? Does your portfolio reﬂect the latest thinking on index construction?
Start with the same group of stocks
Both indexes use the Russell 3000® Index as the starting point.
Russell Fundamental U.S. Large Company Index
Russell 1000 Index Represents the highest-ranking 1,000 stocks in the Russell 3000 Index in terms of market cap
Selects and weights stocks based on the ﬁnancial characteristics of the underlying companies in the Russell 3000
Analyze stocks Each index uses a different methodology to identify which stocks to include.
Russell Fundamental + Adjusted sales
+ Retained operating cash ﬂow 3
Investors should consider carefully information contained in the prospectus, including investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. You can request a prospectus by calling 800-435-4000. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing. Investment returns will ﬂuctuate and are subject to market volatility, so that an investor’s shares, when redeemed or sold, may be worth more or less than their
Stock’s composite fundamental score
Source: Schwab Center for Financial Research. Index data from Russell Indexes and Research Afﬁliates as of 3/31/2015. Constituents are subject to change without notice. For illustrative purposes only; this is not a recommendation to buy or sell any particular security.
Dividends plus buybacks
original cost. Unlike mutual funds, ETF shares are bought and sold at market price, which may be higher or lower than the net asset value. Index ownership—“Russell Fundamental U.S. Large Company Index” is a joint trademark of Frank Russell Company (“Russell”) and Research Afﬁliates LLC (“RA”) and is used by the fund under license. “Research Afﬁliates” and “Fundamental Index” are trademarks of RA. Subject to RA’s intellectual property rights in certain content, Russell is the owner of all copyrights related to the Russell Fundamental Index Series. Russell is the owner of the trademarks and copyrights related to the Russell Indexes. The Russell 1000 Index measures the performance of the large-cap segment of the U.S. equity universe. It is a subset of the Russell 3000 Index and
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t Schwab, we believe a well-diversiﬁed portfolio combines more than one approach to indexing. Traditionally, indexes have been constructed using market-capitalization strategies, which analyze stocks according to their market size. By combining marketcap indexes with indexes that are constructed based on the stocks’ fundamental criteria, investors may achieve greater portfolio diversiﬁcation. So what makes the two indexing styles different? Just like two competing teams, each index has its own set of attributes—in this case, the system it uses to screen and weight individual stocks—that distinguishes it from the competition. Let’s look at how two indexes, the Russell Fundamental U.S. Large Company Index and the Russell 1000® Index, are created.
Determine ranks The higher the rank, the bigger the impact on the index’s performance.
Russell Fundamental rank Stocks are ranked by fundamental score and assigned percentage weights based on those scores.
Russell 1000 rank Stocks are ranked by market cap. Weights in the index are calculated by dividing a stock’s market cap by the index’s total market cap.
Top 10 holdings Exxon Mobil Chevron AT&T Microsoft Wal-Mart Stores Procter & Gamble Pﬁzer Apple IBM JPMorgan Chase
4.38% 2.45% 2.07% 1.67% 1.56% 1.47% 1.42% 1.34% 1.33% 1.32%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 3.55% 2 1.73% 3 1.59% 4 1.35% 5 1.25% 6 1.23% 7 1.18% 8 1.08% 9 1.05% 10 1.05%
Apple Exxon Mobil Microsoft Johnson & Johnson Berkshire Hathaway Wells Fargo General Electric JPMorgan Chase Pﬁzer Procter & Gamble
includes approximately 1,000 of the largest securities based on a combination of their market cap and current index membership. The Russell Fundamental U.S. Large Company Index ranks companies in the Russell 3000 Index by fundamental measures of size and tracks the performance of those companies whose fundamental scores are in the top 87.5% of the Russell 3000 Index. Indexes are unmanaged, do not incur management fees, costs or expenses, and cannot be invested in directly. ©2015 Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. Member SIPC. All rights reserved. (0815-4479)
Why indexing methodologies matter Both indexes include many of the same stocks, but the weights of those stocks often vary widely. As a result, these two indexes tend to perform differently during different market cycles.
Having exposure to both types of indexes can provide diversiﬁcation beneﬁts.
NEXT STEPS Research ETFs and index funds based on fundamental strategies at: schwab.com/OMfundamentalETFs schwab.com/OMfundamentalfunds
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T h e b o tt o m l i n e
T Learn More Read our biweekly international commentary at schwab.com/ OMcommentary.
he U.S. dollar had a strong start in 2015. During the first quarter, the dollar hit a 12-year high against the euro,1 and an eightyear high against the Japanese yen.2 These gains—resulting largely from the relative strength of the U.S. economy compared to overseas economies—create a challenge for people with international investments. Stock and bond investments denominated in euros or yen look a lot less valuable when you convert them into U.S. dollars. This isn’t to suggest that investors should think twice about investing abroad. Foreign assets offer the potential for diversification and other benefits that shouldn’t be ignored. But the situation has left some investors wondering whether they should try to hedge their portfolios against potential currency swings.
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James Ramage, “U.S. Dollar Pushes to New 12-Year High Against the Euro,” The Wall Street Journal, 3/13/2015. 2 “Dollar Rises to 8-Year High Against the Yen,” Reuters, 3/10/2015. 1
See page 46 for important information. Investors should consider carefully information contained in the prospectus, including investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. You can request a prospectus by calling Schwab at 800-435-4000. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. (0915-3221)
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A soaring dollar raises hedging questions.
When you hedge, you try to minimize the effect of currency fluctuations on your portfolio by investing in assets that move in the opposite direction of your target currency. For example, if you think the euro is going to fall against the dollar, you might seek out investments that will rise as the euro weakens, negating the effect of the change. There are several ways to hedge. You could short foreign currency futures, but doing so can be complex and expensive. For this reason, many investors opt for investments that do the work for them, such as exchange-traded funds (ETFs) or mutual funds that hedge currency exposure. Some ETFs and mutual funds state their hedging policy in their prospectus or annual reports. (If this information isn’t available, you could call the fund company and ask, though proprietary information may not be shared.) Before deciding whether to hedge, you should remember that while currency hedging may smooth the performance of a portfolio when currency markets are volatile, it also removes some of the diversification benefit that comes from investing overseas. The dollar isn’t likely to be strong forever, and if it weakens, the returns on overseas assets will get a boost. In general, Schwab doesn’t usually suggest hedging currency exposure in equities because it can be costly. However, given the low yields on international fixed income investments, there may be a case for hedging this part of your portfolio, says Kathy Jones, Senior Vice President and Chief Fixed Income Strategist at the Schwab Center for Financial Research. “The yields on many fixed income investments generally are going to be small—maybe less than or equal to what investors will get in the United States—so investors might want to ensure that currency swings don’t erode those thin returns,” she says. -
Time to Hedge?
in Br to
Does Smaller Mean Better? Small-cap stocks’ fortunes tend to rise with the dollar.
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tocks with small market capitalizations— generally, those with a market value of less than $1 billion—had a much better start to 2015 than their large-cap counterparts. The Russell 2000® Index, a proxy for small-cap stocks, returned 4.4% during the first quarter, while the large-cap Dow Jones Industrial AverageTM fell 0.3%. By mid-May, the Dow had narrowed the gap, returning 3.63% compared with the Russell Index’s 4.84%, but the difference was still noteworthy. Much of the disparity has to do with small-caps’ heavier reliance on the domestic economy. Improving economic conditions have been a boon for smaller companies in terms of demand. Growing sales, combined with favorable borrowing conditions, have made it easier for small companies to secure the financing they need to expand. Then there’s the strong U.S. dollar. A rising dollar hurts the earnings of companies that do a lot of business in overseas markets with weaker currencies. This generally affects large companies more than small ones. However, the factors that have recently buoyed small-cap stocks also tend to make such stocks more volatile, says Brad Sorensen, Director of Market and Sector Analysis at the Schwab Center for Financial Research. For example, their relative lack of overseas exposure may give small-caps an advantage over large-caps when the U.S. economy is growing, but that advantage becomes a liability when domestic growth slows. Small companies may not be able to rely on overseas sales to make up for weakness at home. And because they generally lack the financial resources of large companies, small companies are more sensitive to tightening credit conditions, which could be a problem in a rising interest rate environment. Still, it makes sense for most investors to include small-caps in their stock portfolio, Brad says. After all, because small-caps tend to perform differently than large-cap stocks,
they could provide diversification benefits. But investors should proceed cautiously. “Spread your small-cap investments among multiple stocks because investing in individual small-cap stocks is just adding another layer of risk,” Brad says. Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) and mutual funds that focus on small-cap stocks are a straightforward way to diversify your exposure to this group at a relatively low cost. -
Let’s Talk Call your Schwab Consultant to discuss which small-cap ETFs may be a good fit for your portfolio.
See page 46 for important information. Investors should consider carefully information contained in the prospectus, including investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. You can request a prospectus by calling Schwab at 800-435-4000. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing. Investment returns will fluctuate and are subject to market volatility, so that an investor’s shares, when redeemed or sold, may be worth more or less than their original cost. Unlike mutual funds, shares of ETFs are not individually redeemable directly with the ETF. Shares are bought and sold at market price, which may be higher or lower than the net asset value (NAV). Past performance is no guarantee of future results. (0915-3200)
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Keeping an Eye on the Downside Windhaven aims for sustained performance with less volatility.
Q: Tell us about Windhaven. What makes it different?
Christian Menegatti: Three key concepts describe our style. You could call them the three Ds: downside protection—as in trying to minimize declines—dynamic asset allocation and diversification. So many funds and managed accounts are focused singularly on alpha, or generating excess return relative to the investment’s benchmark. At Windhaven, we dynamically adjust asset allocations, striving to capture growth in rising markets while attempting to reduce exposure in declining ones. We also include a cash allocation that may take a bigger weight in the strategy when we perceive increased risk. We’ll readily leave some upside on the table in favor of mitigating risk and
protecting principal. This approach resonates very strongly with me, and I believe it resonates with our investors.
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Q: Why is minimizing the downside so critical?
look back to the recession in 2008 and 2009, when domestic equities were down more than 50% on the year. If a portfolio declines 50%, it takes a 100% gain to get back to even. By focusing on minimizing the downside, Windhaven strategies’ maximum drawdown during the 2008–2009 period—in other words, the size of the drop from the strategies’ high to their low—ranged from 10–33%. That was less than the maximum drawdown of the S&P 500® Index during
CM: It might seem like ancient history, but
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“At Windhaven, we dynamically adjust asset allocations, striving to capture growth in rising markets while attempting to reduce exposure in declining ones.”
indhaven is a managed portfolio solution with a global approach to diversification and a focus on downside risk management. The firm analyzes more than 40 asset classes in an attempt to capture growth when markets are rising and reduce exposure when they decline. Windhaven offers three broadly diversified strategies, which invest primarily in low-cost index exchange-traded funds (ETFs). To find out more, Onward sat down recently with Windhaven’s Chief Investment Strategist Christian Menegatti to discuss the company’s investment philosophy and his take on the markets.
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the same period. If you’re only down 10%, it takes far less to get back to square one. That saves investors years and money.
Q: And the other two Ds?
CM: Next is dynamic asset allocation.
When I say our strategies are dynamic, that means we are always trying to seize opportunities for growth while navigating uncertain markets. We’re looking to reallocate investments to the asset classes we believe are positioned to outperform in a given environment. Our tactical positioning is driven by a proprietary quantitative model but we also position ourselves for thematic longer-term views. We look at factors relating to the economy, the fundamental qualities of
Christian Menegatti discusses Windhaven's investment philosophy.
different asset classes and the behavior of investors. We merge that with some broad macro themes, such as the rise of the middle class in emerging markets and its impact on consumption. The other component, the third D, is diversification. We think it’s really important to have exposure to asset classes that tend not to move in tandem. We consider exposure to domestic equities, international equities, real estate and hard assets like commodities and gold, and domestic and international fixed income securities. And we attempt to allocate so that individual parts of the strategy are not likely to rise or fall in lockstep with the others. Fall 2015
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Q: Why does Windhaven prefer ETFs?
A B OU T W I N DH AV E N
CM: We like ETFs because they work for us
from a cost standpoint and they provide exposure to where we want to be, globally. We’re not an ETF shop. Rather, we view ETFs as a means to an end, which is global diversification in a cost-efficient way.
You can get started with an initial investment of $100,000 or more for a brokerage or IRA account (or $25,000 for eligible ERISA accounts).
Q: How often does Windhaven reallocate its strategies?
Windhaven offers three broadly diversiﬁed strategies consisting primarily of ETFs that provide exposure to a combination of U.S. and international stocks, ﬁxed income securities, real estate, hard assets (e.g. commodities and gold) and currencies. Currently, Windhaven analyzes more than 40 global asset classes. Broad diversiﬁcation, coupled with a focus on downside risk management, may help reduce losses during market upheavals while striving to take advantage of long-term growth opportunities.
CM: We have a normal reallocation
frequency of three times a year. But that’s not set in stone. That schedule gives us discipline, but we may move more quickly to react to market events if necessary. That said, we’re not market timers. Rather, we aim to make sure investors are prepared for a variety of market scenarios and risks.
Q: What do you see going forward for ﬁnancial markets? CM: Volatility is a definite theme.
Diverging policies from global central banks could stoke more market swings in the coming months. Investors have been grappling for a while now with the implications of the Federal Reserve’s desire to bring monetary policy back to normal, as the European Central Bank and the Bank of Japan both introduce stimulus programs meant to spur economic growth. These divergences constitute
Let’s Talk Call your Schwab Consultant to ﬁnd out if Windhaven is right for you.
largely uncharted territory. As global disinflation is likely to persist and keep markets nervous, periods of heightened volatility are likely.
Q: What does that mean for investors? How do you position your investments to reﬂect your outlook?
CM: A volatile environment is generally
one where you want to be positioned for a down market. That means being invested in more than just U.S. or global large-cap stocks. Look at U.S. fixed income—some managers are beginning to abandon this asset class. But U.S. fixed income has historically been considered a safe haven during times of heightened risk aversion, global deflation and financial stress. And look at the geopolitical risks out there—Greece, Venezuela, the Ukraine, the Middle East, the strong U.S. dollar ... I could go on. We’re not abandoning asset classes like U.S. fixed income, or commodities like gold. We will likely always have some exposure to those, even when the Fed is intent on raising rates. These asset classes can provide protection in case of a shock, and we believe we need to be ready. That might mean, at times, leaving some upside on the table, but that’s consistent with our investment philosophy. -
Past performance is no guarantee of future results; the value of investments and the income derived from them can go down as well as up. Future returns and the achievement of stated goals are not guaranteed, and a loss of principal may occur. Diversiﬁcation strategies do not ensure a proﬁt and do not protect against losses in declining markets. Investments in managed accounts should be considered in view of a larger, more diversiﬁed investment portfolio. International investments may involve additional risks, which could include differences in ﬁnancial accounting standards, currency ﬂuctuations, political instability, foreign taxes and regulations, and the potential for illiquid markets. Investing in emerging markets may accentuate these risks. Maximum drawdown is a measure of risk which captures the worst cumulative peak-to-trough decline from any month-end data point to any other month-end data point. It will show in percentage terms how much money an investment would have lost until it returns to the breakeven point. For example, if you began with a $100,000 investment and you lost $30,000, before that investment returns to its breakeven level, your maximum drawdown would be measured as 30%. Windhaven diversiﬁed strategies are available through Schwab’s Managed Account Connection® program. Please read Schwab’s disclosure brochure for important information and disclosures relating to Schwab Managed Account Connection and Schwab Managed Account Services™. Portfolio management is provided by Windhaven Investment Management, Inc. (“Windhaven”), a registered investment advisor. Windhaven and Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. are separate but afﬁliated companies and subsidiaries of The Charles Schwab Corporation. ©2015 Windhaven Investment Management, Inc. All rights reserved. (0915-3478)
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Washington Gridlock How markets may react to the latest round of brinkmanship. BY Michael townsend
mong the most basic responsibilities of Congress is appropriating funds to operate the federal government. Another is ensuring that the United States does not default on its debts. Yet these and other fundamental obligations have become the focus of bitter partisan battles that regularly remain unresolved until the very last minute—or beyond. The uncertainty roils the markets and provokes investor anxiety.
This fall, Washington is readying itself for another round of fiscal brinkmanship. Congress will once again either have to strike an agreement to fund the government or risk a shutdown. Lawmakers also face a deadline to raise the debt ceiling and avoid a default. The news media will likely make much of this, issuing warnings of impending economic disaster. But should these disputes raise concerns among investors? That remains to be seen. Fall 2015
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Broken budget process
The congressional budget process is a cumbersome one, to say the least. It begins with the president making a budget proposal, which is usually unveiled in February. This document is essentially symbolic, serving to highlight the White House’s policy priorities. Congress then develops its own plan, known as a “budget resolution,” which provides a broad framework for government spending. Next, the appropriations committees in the two chambers fill in the details, allocating funds on an agency-byagency and program-by-program basis. There are 12 appropriations bills, each of which must be approved in identical form by both the House and Senate and then signed into law by the president. Congress is supposed to complete this task before the government’s fiscal year begins each October 1. When Congress misses this deadline, it resorts to “continuing resolutions” to fund the government while lawmakers try to finalize the appropriations bills.
“As this fall’s drama unfolds, investors could see some market volatility. But that’s no reason to panic.”
Where do things stand now?
With Republicans now in control of both chambers, Congress was able to approve a budget resolution earlier this year. However, passing the appropriations bills remains difficult. Congress hasn’t succeeded in passing all 12 bills on time since 1996. Congress failed to pass a single appropriations bill in 2014. Legislators used a series of short-term continuing resolutions to keep the government operating through the election in November. In December, Congress finally agreed to a longer continuing resolution that funded the government for the remainder of fiscal year 2015, which ends September 30. Unless Congress can agree to a new measure, a government shutdown looms on October 1. Should investors be concerned? We think the chances of another government shutdown are relatively low. Congress will likely want to avoid a repeat of the 16-day shutdown in
2013 since both parties drew public ire for their inability to reach consensus. However, that doesn’t mean a long-term solution is likely. So get used to hearing the phrase “continuing resolution,” because Congress will undoubtedly have to resort to a series of short-term agreements to keep the lights on.
Debt ceiling debacles
In the coming weeks, lawmakers will also face a deadline to increase the government’s debt ceiling, which currently stands at about $18.1 trillion. This number represents the amount of debt the Treasury Department can issue to pay for things like Social Security, military salaries and interest on the national debt. When Congress raises the ceiling, it isn’t authorizing new spending. It is just allowing the Treasury to finance its existing commitments. For decades, increasing the debt ceiling was a routine matter. Only in the last 10 years or so has it become controversial. Some cite the ceiling as evidence that politicians can’t control spending.
Where do things stand now?
After repeatedly clashing over whether or not to raise the ceiling, Congress agreed in February 2014 to simply suspend it altogether. That agreement ended on March 15 of this year, so the ceiling was reinstated—at the current level of outstanding debt. Unable to borrow more, the Treasury immediately began employing so-called “extraordinary measures”—such as suspending issuance of state and local government securities and making changes to how federal retirement funds are invested, among other actions—to avoid default. Extraordinary measures are basically accounting techniques designed to buy Congress time, usually from a few weeks to a few months, depending on other economic conditions. But they are not a permanent solution.
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The Congressional Budget Office has estimated that the Treasury could run out of cash by the end of the year. What happens if Congress can’t agree on an increase? You may recall that in August 2011, Congress brought the country close to its first default after failing to raise the ceiling. The uncertainty caused the S&P 500® Index to drop 13% in the first week of August 2011. The market reaction eventually helped push lawmakers into an agreement to increase the debt ceiling. So what are the odds of another showdown this time? A growing number of conservative Republicans have refused to support any increase in the debt ceiling in recent years. Another group of Republicans have said they will support a debt ceiling increase only if it is paired with a corresponding amount of spending cuts, which President Obama has rejected. Meanwhile, Democrats are threatening not to help Republicans pass a debt ceiling increase this year. The path forward remains uncertain, and a long-term solution that would help lower the nation’s accumulated debt continues to be elusive. Some have proposed eliminating the debt ceiling entirely, or at least changing it. For now, we’re stuck with the current process.
Takeaways for investors
As this fall’s drama unfolds, investors could see some market volatility. But that’s no reason to panic. Looking back to the debt ceiling crisis of 2011 could give us some insight into what markets might make of another congressional showdown. As mentioned above, the S&P 500 notched a 13% decline during the first week of August 2011. That was just the start of what would eventually be a 20% drop, accompanied by a rise in volatility. As we now know with the benefit of hindsight, that plunge created a spectacular buying opportunity for equity investors.
The situation in the bond market was another story. Courtesy of anxious investors fleeing to the perceived relative safety of U.S. government bonds, Treasuries rallied quite sharply even as the country faced a potential default. This happened despite pundits’ warnings that a possible debt default, and related downgrade of the United States’ credit rating, would lead to soaring Treasury yields. Why did this happen? -- When all else is going wrong, investors still flock to U.S. Treasuries. The prospect that the government might be shut down raised the risk of an economic downturn as public spending dried up. The economy wasn’t very strong at the time, so the extra drag on growth could have risked tipping the economy into a recession. Demand for bonds from concerned investors may have helped pull down yields. -- Some also thought the Federal Reserve would go out of its way to pump liquidity into the financial system to offset the impact of a contracting government sector. -- Some simply didn’t believe Congress would let the worst come to pass. With the stock market falling and an uncertain economic outlook, investors assumed the government would make good on its promises. After all, it wasn’t unable to pay its bills, just unwilling.
Next Steps Find more of Michael’s timely insights on Washington at schwab.com/ OMcommentary.
Of course, this isn’t to suggest that history will repeat itself this fall. But it may still be reassuring to know that financial markets weathered the last major showdown in Washington. Michael Townsend is Vice President of Legislative and Regulatory Affairs at Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. See page 46 for important information. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. (0915-3742)
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Ready for Higher Rates Ladders and barbells can help prepare your bond portfolio for rising rates.
B y K at h y J o n e s
The case for higher rates
The U.S. economy may be improving, but there are still potential weak spots in the labor market and inflation is hovering below the Fed’s longterm 2% target. So why raise rates at all? First of all, it takes time for the full effects of changes in monetary policy to be felt in the economy. If the Fed waited until employment and inflation were both rising strongly before hiking rates, it could risk over-stimulating the economy. In addition, the Fed has expressed concern that leaving rates too low for too long could encourage excessive risk-taking by investors. Finally, leaving benchmark rates near zero robs the central bank of one of its tools for
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or the past decade, the Federal Reserve has kept interest rates low in a bid to support the economy—first by cutting a benchmark lending rate down to zero and then, when it couldn’t cut any further, adopting other rate-suppressing actions. Now that the end of this accommodative approach is at hand, bond investors face a dilemma. On one hand, investors will have to contend with falling bond prices as interest rates rise. On the other, higher interest rates will help them earn more income from their bond portfolios. With rates poised to rise, now is a good time to review your bond portfolio to see whether it is positioned for changing conditions in the fixed income market.
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influencing the economy. Adopting a more “normal” footing gives the Fed room to cut rates in the future if the economy needs a shot of stimulus. The thing to keep in mind about the Fed is that it tends to move cautiously, and any rate increases in the months ahead will likely be “slow and low” compared to previous tightening cycles.
How will the market react?
So what might that mean for the bond market? Although no two economic or policy cycles are alike, the previous three cycles of Fed tightening—1994, 1999 and 2004—could provide some guidance. Three things about these periods stand out: -- Volatility increased in the short term: The worst periods for bond market performance were generally the three months prior to and the three months after the first rate hike. Price declines for longterm bonds were greater than for shortand intermediate-term bonds during this time period. -- Long-term bond returns held up: In the one to two years following a rate increase, investing in long-term bonds delivered returns that were nearly as good as—or even better than—those from short- to intermediate-maturity bonds. -- Diversity was important: Holding a mix of maturities delivered returns with less volatility. Given these findings, how might investors prepare their portfolios for a rising rate environment? Having a portfolio of diversified maturities is probably the best approach. Bond ladders and barbells are two strategies for spreading fixed income holdings across different maturities that can provide both flexibility and income.
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With a ladder, you diversify your fixed income holdings across a variety of maturities. For example, a 10-year bond ladder would have some bonds maturing each year over the next decade. As bonds mature, you can reinvest the principal in new longer-term bonds. This is where the
“ladder” comes in—every rung (or maturity) at the bottom of the bond ladder is replaced by one at the top. The benefit of this approach is that you aren’t locked into a single maturity and have regular opportunities to reinvest. This can be helpful when rates are rising, as your maturing bonds will give you cash flow you can use to buy new bonds offering higher rates. The intermediate- and longer-term bonds will generate income in the meantime. One of the potential challenges of building a bond ladder is that investors may need a relatively large portfolio to achieve diversification.
“Any rate increases in the months ahead will likely be ‘slow and low’ compared to previous tightening cycles.”
A barbell strategy basically divides the allocation of bonds between very shortand intermediate-term maturities in a bid to maximize the benefits of each. The short-term bonds provide liquidity that can be quickly reinvested in new bonds when rates rise, while the longer-term maturities provide income. For investors sidelined with a high proportion of cash, waiting for interest rates to rise, a barbell strategy may be a good way to work into a bond ladder over time. As rates gradually rise, investors could add some intermediate-to-long-term bonds to the portfolio.
What to do now
The prospect of higher interest rates has investors both concerned about short-term volatility and hopeful about the opportunity to earn higher returns on their fixed income investments. It’s important to remember that bonds play a key role in your portfolio. They generate income, provide diversification from stocks and are useful for planning since most have fixed maturities. But when the Fed changes policy, fixed income investing can become more complicated. Taking a few steps to diversify your fixed income holdings now could leave your portfolio better positioned to respond to shifting market conditions. Kathy Jones (@kathyjones) is Senior Vice President, Chief Fixed Income Strategist at the Schwab Center for Financial Research.
Let’s Talk For help with your bond investments, call your Schwab Consultant or contact our dedicated Fixed Income Specialists at 800-942-9084.
See page 46 for important information. (0915-3255)
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I N T E R N AT I O N A L
Don’t Overlook Emerging Markets They could offer attractive growth and diversiﬁcation beneﬁts. BY JEFFREY KLEINTOP
he words “emerging markets” conjure different images for different investors. Where some think of emerging markets as an exciting category where high risks go hand-inhand with potentially high rewards, others picture an exotic world that is best left to professionals. But investors shouldn’t get hung up on the name. Far from being a niche where the normal rules don’t apply, emerging markets play an important role in financial markets and the global economy. They account for more than half of the world’s economic output, 80% of its population and 10% of global stock market valuation.1 Adding exposure to emerging-market investments to your portfolio offers the potential for growth and diversification. Here we’ll take a closer look at this sometimes misunderstood segment of the investing world.
Middle class spending by region Between 2009 and 2030, consumption by the global middle class is forecast to grow from $21.3 trillion to roughly $55.7 trillion—more than 160%. 2009
Value in trillions of dollars
$30 $25 $20 $15
$10 $5 0
Central/ South America
$5.0 $1.1 Asia
Source: Charles Schwab, with data from “The Emerging Middle Class In Developing Countries,” Homi Kharas, OECD Development Center, 1/2010.
What’s in a name?
In general, “emerging markets” are low- or middleincome countries that are on the path to developedcountry status. These countries typically have rapidly rising per capita income and economic growth. They also generally have fairly large and liquid financial markets. On the continuum of market designations, emerging markets are less mature than developed countries, but more mature than poorer and far riskier “frontier markets.” The category encompasses a very diverse group of economies. Perhaps the most famous group of emerging markets was identified roughly 15 years ago when an analyst coined the term “BRICs” to recognize the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China, which were growing fast at the time. Other well-known emerging economies include Mexico, Indonesia, South Africa and Turkey. MSCI, which assembled the benchmark MSCI Emerging Markets Index in the late ’80s, also considers relatively sophisticated economies such as South Korea and Taiwan to be emerging markets.
In recent years, growth has slowed in many emerging markets, at least compared with the rapid rates during the BRICs era around the turn of the century. However, these economies still typically offer more rapid economic growth than developed economies such as the United States, Japan and many European countries. Several factors are at work here. First of all, emerging markets have the potential to rise quickly as they develop. At the same time, many of them have young populations, which bodes well for consumption, especially if you compare them with those developed countries where aging populations will eventually lead to a decline in the number of consumers. Many emerging markets have tidied up their fiscal situations after being upended in a series of crises in the ’90s. Their debt is lower relative to the size of their economies, and their citizens tend to save more than those in developed economies. In addition, emerging economies have flexible exchange rates and larger foreign-currency reserves than they once had. Over the longer term, emerging markets could be the source of the most significant global demographic change for investors: the rise of the global middle class. The World Bank estimates that
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by 2030, 93% of the global middle class will be in emerging market countries. This will likely be a major investment theme of the coming decade. (See chart on page 18.) Global providers of household products, autos and many other categories may benefit from the middle class megatrend. At the same time, demand for services from finance to health care is also likely to rise.
Emerging markets also provide investors with diversification because they can perform differently than developed markets. As you can see in the chart at right, there have been periods over the past decade when emerging market stocks have performed significantly better than those in the U.S. and other developed markets, as well as periods when they have significantly underperformed.
Emerging markets may be on the path toward developed-country status, but they still have work to do to get there. That means they may come with their own set of risks. For example, their corporate governance—the framework or set of rules under which companies operate—is generally regarded as being poorer than that of developed countries. There can be restrictions on how freely businesses operate as well as their ability to earn profits. It can also be difficult for investors to research emerging market companies. In addition, geopolitical or social unrest might spur political change in some emerging markets, potentially ushering in instability. Trade and fiscal deficits may cause some emerging market countries to struggle if the Federal Reserve begins to hike interest rates. Also, China, the largest emerging market, has launched economic reforms that may slow growth. At the same time, some investors may be concerned that the strong U.S. dollar—which set record highs against some emerging market currencies within the last year—dims the appeal of emerging markets stocks. A rising dollar is a drag on any investment not denominated in U.S. dollars. Some emerging market companies could struggle to service their dollar-denominated debt, as they could find themselves having to make payments with a weakened currency.
Emerging markets perform differently DOMESTIC EQUITIES
–37 –43.1 –53.2
34.5 20.7 26
Annual return Source: Morningstar Direct as of 12/31/2014. Calendar year performance. Domestic equities represented by the S&P 500® Index, international developed equities represented by the MSCI EAFE Index, and emerging market equities represented by the MSCI Emerging Markets Index. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. Dividends and interest are assumed to have been reinvested.
Part of a well-balanced portfolio
All investors, but mostly those with moderate to higher risk tolerances, might want to consider adding emerging market stocks as part of a diversified portfolio. Even as emerging markets continue to contend with sluggish global growth, they will likely produce much faster growth than developed markets, which investors prize in a world where growth is scarce. -
Let’s Talk Talk to your Schwab Consultant about whether emerging market investments make sense for your portfolio.
Jeffrey Kleintop (@jeffreykleintop) is Senior Vice President, Chief Global Investment Strategist at Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. 1 Global output and population data from the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook as of April 2015. Global stock market valuation from MSCI as of 12/31/2014.
See page 46 for important information. Investors should consider carefully information contained in the prospectus, including investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. You can request a prospectus by calling Schwab at 800-435-4000. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing. Some specialized exchange-traded funds can be subject to additional market risks. Investment returns will ﬂuctuate and are subject to market volatility, so that an investor’s shares, when redeemed or sold, may be worth more or less than their original cost. (0815-3757)
16 17.9 18.6
EMERGING MARKETS EQUITIES
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placed stop orders only to suffer losses when executions were triggered far below their stop price. Others have found themselves shut out of opportunities for appreciation. Let’s examine three different types of stop orders and when it might make sense to use them.
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With a regular stop order, you set a stop (or trigger) price below which you would no longer be interested in holding a stock. If that price isn’t reached, then nothing happens. However, if your stock declines to your stop price, a market order is placed to sell the stock at the next best available price. Stop orders offer execution protection, but not price protection. That means that while execution is generally guaranteed when the price trigger is reached, the final sales price isn’t. If your stock price declines slowly, that might not be a problem—your trade would likely be executed at a price level that is close to your stop price. However, if a stock “gaps down,” or suffers a sudden sharp drop, your trade could execute at a price level far below your stop price. Keep in mind that if your stock price rises, you may want to help protect your unrealized gains by canceling any existing stop orders and then resubmitting them at a higher price.
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How to use stop orders to help protect profits. BY R andy Frederick
any traders use stop orders to help protect an unrealized gain or limit potential losses on an existing position. Such orders can be useful tools. They help you play defense by setting parameters for transactions, and may provide comfort when markets are volatile. However, stop orders aren’t without risks. I have heard from traders who have
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A stop-limit order can address the price risk associated with regular stop orders by letting you set a floor under your stop order. In other words, you set two prices— a stop price and a limit price. If the stop price is triggered, a limit order is placed to sell at your specified limit price or better. However, if the next available price after the stop price is reached is below the limit price, then the order will not be executed. Stop-limit orders offer price protection, but not execution protection. That means that while you can avoid having a trade execute far below your stop price, you can’t guarantee an execution will occur if your stock drops below your limit price. As with regular stop orders, you will have to cancel and resubmit existing stop-limit
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orders if you want to help protect unrealized gains as your stock price increases.
Three types of stop orders
Trailing stop orders
Order Stop Type Order
A trailing stop order is essentially a stop order that adjusts upward with a rising stock, eliminating the need to cancel and resubmit orders as you would with a stop or stop-limit order. Once a stock stops rising and begins to move lower, the stop price freezes at the highest level it reaches. If the stock declines enough to trigger the order, it becomes a market order just like a regular stop order. And like a regular stop order, a trailing stop order offers execution protection, but not price protection.
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You must manually cancel and re-enter orders if you want to change your stop price.
You must manually cancel and re-enter orders if you want to change your stop and limit prices.
Automatically adjusts higher if your stock rises.
*Trailing stop orders are not available on all Schwab trading platforms.
Once you’ve picked what type of order you’d like to employ, you have to decide where to set your price levels. Where you position your stop and limit prices is important—the right price can help protect you from the downside while giving your positions room to run. Where to set the stop price ultimately depends on how much of a loss you are comfortable taking. Many traders have a standard policy of setting a trailing stop price 5–10% below the current price. You can also identify a level using the stock’s point value. Traders who determine the size of each trade based on the dollar amount invested may find the latter approach more effective than using a percentage. It’s important for traders to approach every stop order differently, accounting not just for overall market conditions but also for the specific security’s volatility and trading history.
Trailing Stop Order*
If the stock price rises?
Stop order strategies
All three types of stop orders discussed above typically work well in slowly declining markets. They are less helpful in halted or gapping down markets due to the possibility of losses or an inability to execute. Volatility could present other problems. If stocks are experiencing major price swings, you may face a higher chance your stop order will be executed. The trick in volatile markets
is to give your positions enough room to move around without triggering a premature sale. Short-term traders may also want to give themselves some breathing room to prevent locking in a loss too soon. And then there’s the question of how volatile your particular stock is. If the stock you’re trading has a history of fluctuating as much as 5% in price daily, placing a stop order 5% below your entry price is likely to result in an unfavorable outcome. In contrast, a 5% stop order may be appropriate for a stock that has a history of fluctuating 5% in a month. You can calculate the average daily price change for a stock with a few days of pricing data. The table on page 22 lists the hypothetical daily closing prices for stock XYZ over six consecutive trading days. As you can see, the average day-to-day closing price change for the week was $0.45, or about 0.82%. For the full week, the net change was $0.28, or about 0.51%. Entering a 5%, or a three-point, stop order on XYZ would likely provide adequate protection and reduce the risk of being stopped out too soon. In addition, you should look ahead to events like earnings releases that might cause an increase in volatility. I rarely leave a stop order in place if a company is going to report Fall 2015
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Gauging stock volatility Schwab’s StreetSmart Edge® trading platform has a historical volatility chart that lets you gauge the recent volatility of any stock. The charts below compare the volatility of two hypothetical stocks, XYZ and ZYX. In the first chart, we can see that the 30-day historical volatility (the blue line) of XYZ is 21.82%. In the second chart, we see ZYX has a historical volatility of 68.83%. Clearly, ZYX is the more volatile of the two. If you wanted to use a stop order with ZYX, you would want to allow more room for price changes, whether you are setting it based on points or percentage.
Hypothetical daily closing prices for XYZ Date
Net price change
Price change %
For illustrative purposes only.
Source: StreetSmart Edge. For illustrative purposes only.
earnings after the market closes. Overnight stop orders create a false sense of security for many traders, who think they have more protection than they really do. The risk is just too great that the stock will open sharply lower if the company’s earnings disappoint. Stop orders are mainstay tools for traders to manage downside risk and lock in potential profits, but make sure you understand their limitations. While each order type can help you protect your positions, you need to be strategic in using them. Carefully selecting the right tool and establishing the right pricing parameters can vastly help increase your success rate. Randy Frederick (@randyafrederick) is Managing Director of Trading and Derivatives at the Schwab Center for Financial Research.
Source: StreetSmart Edge. For illustrative purposes only.
Stay abreast of the markets with Charting the Market, a live analysis and Q&A session about current market action. Join us Tuesdays at 7 p.m. Eastern time and Thursdays at 1:30 p.m. Eastern time. Sign up at schwab.com/OMtradinglearningcenter.
See page 46 for important information. The trailing stop feature should not be confused with the stop order (order type). All StreetSmart Edge alerts with trailing stops or other conditional orders will be entered as a market order type (same day only). (0915-3249)
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optimistic expectations put your retirement at risk.
ptimism is a fine thing, but it’s no substitute for careful planning when it comes to saving for retirement. Unfortunately, some people have misconceptions about how much they’ll need to support themselves in retirement—and the steps they’ll need to take to get there. The Employee Benefit Research Institute’s (EBRI) 2015 Retirement Confidence Survey found that retirees are more likely to say their expenses in retirement are higher than expected (37%), rather than lower (24%). Only 35% say their expenses are about the same as expected. Meanwhile, many working-age people haven’t bothered to think about their retirement savings at all, with only 48% saying either they or their spouse had ever tried to calculate how much they will need to save in order to live comfortably in retirement. This doesn’t mean that most people’s savings plans are doomed to come up short. Far from it. It’s entirely possible to save for the retirement you’ve been dreaming about. The bottom line is that some judicious saving and planning today can help you avoid some common pitfalls that could make your retirement more challenging. Here we’ll look at a few misconceptions and rosy assumptions about retirement and the reasons why most people would be better off avoiding them.
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You can always keep working.
The EBRI survey found that 67% of workers are planning to continue doing some kind of work for pay after they retire. It’s true that people are living longer and are generally healthier these days, and many retirees find they want to continue working because they like it. But many of the survey’s respondents also gave financial reasons: 81% said they’ll need the income to make ends meet, and 74% said they want to keep health insurance or other benefits. The risk is that working isn’t always possible. The survey found many retirees end up leaving the workforce earlier than planned— half the respondents in 2015 said they had retired unexpectedly. Sometimes, workers find they have enough money to retire
early. But more often, people have to stop working due to health problems, company downsizing or workplace closures. Retiring for any of these reasons could pose serious problems for those who don’t have adequate savings. Of course, some people continue to work into their 80s or even their 90s. But you’re probably better off structuring your savings plans so that working in retirement is a matter of choice, not necessity.
You’ll need only 70–80% of your pre-retirement income.
If you were saving 20–30% of your pre-retirement income, then the 70–80% incomereplacement rule is a good place to start. Otherwise, this old rule of thumb may have outlived its usefulness. It assumes that retiring will free you from any work-related expenses, that you’ll have paid off your mortgage and that your children will be financially independent.
However, even if these expenses go away, you should still prepare for other costs to go up. For instance, major health care expenses can be difficult to plan for. Medicare doesn’t cover everything, and health care expenses that Medicare doesn’t cover—such as long-term care—can add up quickly. You also might spend more on other things. For example, you might want to travel or spend more on gifts. Or you might provide financial support to a relative or friend, as 20% of retirees are now doing, according to the EBRI’s survey. The bottom line is that it’s safer to aim at covering 100% of your pre-retirement income, less whatever you’re saving for retirement. As with any general rule, there are plenty of exceptions. So be sure to sit down and fine-tune your retirement budget as the time draws near.
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“It’s to aim at covering 100% of your pre-retirement income, less whatever you’re saving for retirement.”
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The stock market will save you.
You’ll be in a lower tax bracket once you retire.
Even with recent increases, marginal tax rates are still near historic lows, and it’s unlikely that most people will move to a lower bracket in retirement. Even if they do, the change will likely be just a few percentage points rather than a major shift. For example, for 2015, a couple with a pre-retirement income of $155,000 would have to earn less than half that amount to move from the 28% bracket to the 15% bracket. Sure, your salary will be going away (as will FICA taxes), but you will still have income, such as distributions from retirement accounts and Social Security benefits. (For married couples filing jointly, up to 85% of your Social Security income may be taxable if your modified adjusted gross income is more than $44,000.) You should remember that as recently as the 1980s, the top federal tax bracket was a whopping 70%. While tax rates aren’t likely to return to that level anytime soon, it is possible rates could rise in the future. So if your taxable income remains the same in retirement as when you were working, higher rates in the future could boost your tax liability. Unless you have a very high pre-retirement income, it’s safer to assume that you will keep paying taxes at roughly the same rate after you stop working.
The market declines of 2002 and 2008 should have convinced most people that this is not a reliable assumption. But with the market rising again, it’s easy to forget that you may not see the kinds of returns going forward that you saw in the 30 years prior to 2000. It’s always better to be cautious when making assumptions about the market’s performance, and to have some cash and more stable investments in your portfolio to help you weather a bear market. Whatever your risk tolerance, your retirement spending plan should consider a range of reasonable portfolio outcomes. You could plan for high-singledigit returns for stocks and about half that for bonds (despite today’s extraordinarily low interest rates). But don’t assume the same return every year. Market returns fluctuate and a bear market in the early years of your retirement could have a significant impact on your ability to sustain cash flow. Market gains can help your savings go further in retirement, but they aren’t a replacement for pre-retirement saving. And make sure that you have a cushion of less volatile investments in place when you reach retirement.
There’s always Social Security.
Some people head into retirement thinking they’ll be able to rely on Social Security to cover most of their needs. Others doubt that Social Security will even exist by the time they retire. Both scenarios are too extreme. The Social Security Administration projects that the current system will remain sound through 2036, but beginning in 2037, benefits could be reduced by 22% and may continue to decline annually if no changes are made to the program. Social Security is likely to be a valuable resource for many retirees, but don’t get carried away. No matter what, Social Security is going to cover only a portion of your retirement spending, and you will need additional savings to bridge the gap. All things considered, it’s important to be flexible and adjust your plans when needed. Don’t get into a situation where your retirement works only if one set of assumptions turns out to be true. But you should also avoid the kind of pessimism that might cause you to scale back to the point where you’re sacrificing more than necessary. -
Call your Schwab Consultant to discuss how to best leverage your investments to help meet your retirement needs.
See page 46 for important information. (0815-3425)
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Commodities’ recent struggles shouldn’t overshadow their long-term appeal.
ommodities—raw materials including agricultural goods like wheat and coffee, energy sources like oil and gasoline, and metals like gold and copper—had a rough ride in 2014. Ibbotson Associates and Morningstar Direct ranked commodities last among 13 asset classes in terms of performance for the year. The Bloomberg Commodity Index, which tracks the performance of 22 commodities, fell almost 17% in 2014. However, these recent challenges shouldn’t overshadow the case for including a long-term allocation to commodities in your portfolio. Commodities offer diversification benefits, potential growth opportunities and inflation hedging, and they may give investors a way to tap into potentially fast-growing emerging markets in the years ahead. Here we’ll look at why commodities deserve a place in a welldiversified portfolio.
The case for including commodities in your portfolio starts with their historical tendency to perform differently than stocks and bonds in varying market conditions. You might recall that gold surged when stocks tanked during the 2008 financial crisis, as some investors gravitated toward the perceived safety of real assets. Since no asset class performs well consistently, having exposure to uncorrelated investments that don’t move in lockstep helps reduce portfolio risk. To see how the benefits of diversification might play out in a portfolio, consider how two
Commodities o f f e r d i v e r s i f i cat i o n opportunities
$10,000 $9,000 $8,000
50/50 Portfolio with annual rebalancing
$5,000 $4,000 $3,000 $2,000 $1,000 $100 1970
Source: Charles Schwab Investment Advisory, Inc. and Morningstar Direct. The example is hypothetical and provided for illustrative purposes only. It is not intended to represent a specific investment product. Dividends and interest are assumed to have been reinvested, and the example does not reflect the effects of fees or expenses. If fees and expenses had been included, returns would have been lower. Hypothetical performance is no guarantee of future results. Risk is represented by standard deviation of returns. The standard deviation of the S&P 500-only portfolio was 17.43%; the standard deviation of the S&P GSCI-only portfolio was 24.93%; and the standard deviation of the 50/50 portfolio with annual rebalancing was 14.65%.
hypothetical investments of $100 at the beginning of 1970 would have played out by the end of 2014: -- $100 invested in U.S. large-company stocks (as represented by the S&P 500® Index) would have grown to $8,854, excluding fees and expenses. That’s an average annual return of 10.48%. -- $100 invested in commodity markets (as measured by the S&P GSCI® Index) would have grown to $3,233, representing an average annual return of 8.03%. Fall 2015
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I n f l at i o n -a d j us t e d performance of s toc ks, b o n ds a n d commodities
2,000% 1,800% 1,600% 1,400% 1,200%
800% 600% 400% 200% 0%
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Growth potential 1970
Source: Morningstar Direct. Stocks are represented by the S&P 500 Index, longterm bonds are represented by the Ibbotson Associates SBBI U.S. Long-Term Government Bond Index Total Return, and commodities are represented by the S&P GSCI Index. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.
C o m m o d i t i e s h av e h i s to r i ca l ly p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r t h a n s toc ks w h e n i n f l at i o n i s h i g h
commodities average annual return stocks average annual return
20% 15% 10% 5% 0% -5% -10% -15%
Source: Morningstar Direct. Data from 1/1/1970 to 12/31/2014. Stocks are represented by the S&P 500 Index, commodities are represented by the S&P GSCI Index and inflation is represented by the Ibbotson Associates SBBI U.S. Inflation Index. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.
Unlike stocks, commodities don’t generate earnings or dividends, so returns are driven by supply and demand. Commodity prices are influenced by consumption and the scarcity of raw materials, as well as speculation about future price movements. We looked at how commodities’ inflation-adjusted returns stacked up against those of stocks and bonds from 1970 to 2014. As you can see in the chart at top left, commodities haven’t performed as well as stocks or bonds recently, but during some periods commodities have done very well. A variety of factors hurt commodities in 2014—oil prices were wracked by rising supply and slowing global economic growth, a bumper grain harvest in the United States depressed prices, and a surging U.S. dollar forced other countries to pay more for commodities priced in dollars. While these factors seem set to persist over the short term, that doesn’t mean they’ll be around forever. If global growth accelerates, commodities will likely benefit, particularly as demand and consumption recover in emerging markets. Increased middle–class consumption in China has been a boon for commodities in the past, just as strong growth in other emerging countries could give a boost to commodities in the years ahead.
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Now imagine that $100 had been invested in a 50/50 split between the two and rebalanced annually. That portfolio would have grown to $8,551—an average annual return of 10.39%. While the value of the 50/50 portfolio would have been slightly less than that of the U.S. largecompany stock portfolio at the end of 2014, the 50/50 portfolio would also have been 16% less risky. In other words, combining stocks and commodities in a portfolio can help mitigate its overall risk. This is the value of diversification— smoothing the ride over time.
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Commodities have historically outperformed stocks during periods of inflation, which could make them a useful hedge against rising prices. The advantage of an inflation-hedging component in your portfolio may not seem as evident in periods when inflation is low, as it has been in recent years, but the benefits are quite clear over longer periods of time. We compared how stocks and commodities performed between 1970 and 2014 during periods when inflation was below 2%, in a moderate 2–4% range and more than 4%. As the chart at bottom left on page 28 shows, commodity returns have increased in periods when prices are rising briskly. That kind of performance is valuable when inflation is eroding the returns on financial assets.
Of course, not all commodities are the same—and each has its own unique risks. For example, the four-year drought in California may continue to hurt agricultural production, leading to higher prices. And turmoil in the Ukraine and the Middle East has led to wide swings in natural gas and oil prices. Still, the case for allocating at least a part of your portfolio to commodities is clear. Commodities took a drubbing over the past 12–18 months, but that doesn’t mean investors should run for the hills and banish them from their portfolios. -
Talk to Us Call your Schwab Consultant to discuss if commodity ETFs might make sense for your portfolio.
See page 46 for important information. For funds, investors should consider carefully information contained in the prospectus, including investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. You can request a prospectus by calling Schwab at 800-435-4000. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing. Investment returns will fluctuate and are subject to market volatility, so that an investor’s shares, when redeemed or sold, may be worth more or less than their original cost. Unlike mutual funds, ETF shares are bought and sold at market price, which may be higher or lower than the net asset value. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. Since sector- and commodity-specific funds are not diversified and focus their investments entirely in a single sector, commodity or basket of commodities, the funds will involve a greater degree of risk than an investment in other diversified fund types. Indexes are unmanaged, do not incur management fees, costs or expenses, and cannot be invested in directly. (0915-3683)
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Getting to Know Dividend Stocks
n a world of persistently low interest rates and economic uncertainty, many investors have turned to dividendpaying stocks for income and stability. Many of those investors may have been dismayed earlier this year when the prospect of higher interest rates sent some dividendpaying stocks tumbling. Historically, dividend-paying stocks have not been subject to the kind of interest rate risks that come with other incomefocused investments.
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Dividendpaying stocks may offer value even if rates rise.
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Nevertheless, as the Federal Reserve contemplates its first interest rate increase since 2006, investors need to be more selective. Not all dividend-paying stocks are the same—a number of factors affect a company’s value and dividend payout. For example, utility and telecommunications companies, whose stocks are popular for their relatively high dividend yields, tend to be relatively slow growing and debt laden. These characteristics could put pressure on a company’s ability to increase dividends in rising interest rate environments. Let’s take a closer look at dividend-paying stocks, how they have fared in rising rate environments and how to assess them.
year payments are poised for a fifth straight annual gain of at least 10%.1 This resonates with incomefocused investors such as retirees, who often rely on recurring sources of income to help pay their bills. Those looking for growth as well as income might consider the benefits of reinvestment. Reinvesting your dividends— adding your earnings to your original investment—can help
Historical performance after the Federal Reserve increased rates Cumulative total return Growers
27.89% 17.69% 11.48%
Many investors like dividendpaying stocks because they can offer a relatively regular source of cash flows—most dividends are paid quarterly. Companies in the S&P 500® Index paid a record $45 billion in dividends in February, according to S&P Dow Jones Indices, and full-
boost returns through the power of compounding. This can create a snowball effect, as the original investments, plus the income earned from those investments, can grow together over time. Or it can cushion losses during down periods. For example, if you had invested $68.56 in the S&P 500 on December 31, 1974 (the closing value of the index on that date) and reinvested all of your subsequent dividend
1.08% 1 Year
Source: ThomasPartners Empirical Research with data from Barclays Research and the CRSP® 1962 U.S. Stock Database. ©2014 Center for Research in Security Prices (CRSP), University of Chicago Booth School of Business. The results reflect the equally weighted average cumulative total return of stocks in the S&P 500 during Federal Reserve tightening cycles from 1/1/1972 through 3/31/2015, but may not include all periods of Federal Reserve monetary policy tightening during that period. Dates selected for initiation of each tightening cycle were determined by Barclays Research. Stocks in the S&P 500 were sorted into one of four categories and based on the company’s annual dividend policy over a three-year period following the initiation of a Federal Reserve tightening cycle. Indexes are unmanaged, do not incur management fees, costs, taxes or expenses and cannot be invested in directly. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.
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-- Monthly income. ThomasPartners’ strategy is designed to provide monthly income—whether the market goes up or down. You can take this income as a monthly dividend payout now or reinvest it for future growth. -- Annual income growth. The cost of living increases every year, so ThomasPartners aims to offset inflation with a dividend payout designed to grow every year, too. -- Competitive total returns. Investing has a lifelong purpose, so the strategy seeks to deliver long-term, competitive total returns over time.
The minimum investment in the ThomasPartners Dividend Growth Strategy is $100,000. If you’d like to learn more, visit schwab.com/ OMthomaspartners.
Portfolio management is provided by ThomasPartners, Inc. (“ThomasPartners”), a registered investment advisor and an affiliate of Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. There are risks associated with any investment approach, and the ThomasPartners Dividend Growth Strategy has its own set of risks. First, there are the risks associated with investing in dividend-paying stocks, including but not limited to the risk that stocks in the strategy may reduce or stop paying dividends, affecting the strategy’s ability to generate income. Second, investor sentiment could cause dividend-paying equities to fall out of favor or price earnings multiples to compress. Please discuss these and other potential risks with your Financial Consultant prior to investing.
payments, your portfolio’s value would have grown to $6,140.23 by the end of 2014, according to research by ThomasPartners,® Inc. Take dividends out of that equation and the simple price appreciation would have netted you $2,058.90 over the same period.2 Dividend stocks and interest rates
As the market awaits the Fed’s interest rate hike, many investors are wondering how dividendpaying stocks will fare in a rising rate environment. As you can see in the chart on page 31, research by ThomasPartners found that dividend payers, particularly those that increased or initiated a dividend, delivered returns
that were consistently higher than those from both nondividend payers and those that cut their dividend in the 36 months following an initial rate hike.
a t o lo w
Assessing dividendpaying stocks
Dividend-paying stocks are not without risk. So what should you pay attention to when you’re considering them? First of all, it’s worth emphasizing that dividendpaying stocks don’t provide the downside protection afforded by many bonds if held to maturity. Another major source of concern is the ability of a company to continue paying dividends at the current rate—or
“It’s worth it to be discerning when you invest. Beware of overly high dividend yields and pay attention to a company’s fundamentals.”
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ThomasPartners seeks to deliver a regular, growing stream of dividend income by investing in companies that pay dividends—with the goal of growing those dividends in the future. ThomasPartners’ Dividend Growth Strategy has three goals:
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at all. Dividends are paid at the discretion of the board of directors, which can raise, lower or eliminate a dividend whenever it chooses. In assessing dividend-paying stocks, you should ask yourself a few questions:
What is the stock’s dividend yield? Steve Greiner, who leads
the Schwab Equity Ratings® team within the Schwab Center for Financial Research, says his team takes special care to analyze each company’s ability to continue supporting its dividend and raise it over time. One red flag is when a stock’s dividend yield—or the ratio of how much a company pays out in dividends each year relative to its share price—appears much higher than that of its peers. A rising yield isn’t always good because it can simply reflect a declining share price. “When I see people chasing dividend yields of 5–6%, I really have to question whether that’s starting to become a distressed security,” Steve says. “In those cases, I have to wonder if the board hasn’t met recently to cut the size of the dividend.” He says the “sweet spot” for dividend yields is between 3%
How does the company pay for its dividends? Steve
and his team also consider how companies are paying for their dividends. Those that take out additional debt to fund dividends, rather than simply paying them out of earnings, may be at risk of a dividend cut. “You want your dividendpaying stock to have a strong balance sheet behind it,” Steve says. “Otherwise, you have to worry about the company weathering a tough environment.”
How much free cash flow does the company have?
Greg Thomas, Senior Vice President and Chief Investment Strategist at ThomasPartners, says, “We look at whether a company is generating sufficient free cash flow to provide headroom for dividend increases.” Free cash flow refers to cash leftover after capital expenditures—or spending on equipment and other infrastructure needed to conduct business. Companies typically use such funds for dividends, stock buybacks or acquisitions.
Dividend-paying stocks can be a potential source of income and returns. However, they come with a different set of risks and aren’t a substitute for bonds in the income-generating part of your portfolio. It’s worth it to be discerning when you invest. Beware of overly high dividend yields and pay attention to a company’s fundamentals. You don’t want your quest for yield to leave you overburdened with risk. -
Let’s Talk Call your Schwab Consultant to find out if dividend-paying stocks make sense for your portfolio.
1 “What’s Long Worked for Dividend Stocks No Longer Does as Worries Climb About Interest Rates,” Associated Press, 3/5/2015. 2 Growth of this investment in the S&P 500 Total Return Index assumes reinvestment of dividends on December 31 of each year, includes capital gains and does not reflect the effect of taxes and fees. If fees and expenses were considered, returns would have been lower. Hypothetical performance is no guarantee of future results. Indexes are unmanaged, do not incur management fees, costs, taxes or expenses and cannot be invested in directly.
See page 46 for important information. (0915-3777)
and 4%, but higher levels could make sense for companies in certain industries, such as oil and gas.
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A Working Relationship Schwab Financial Consultants help you stay focused.
A relationship built on trust
Many investors turn to a financial professional to help them come up with a plan for a specific goal like buying a home, paying for college or saving for retirement. But the relationship needn’t end there. Schwab Financial Consultants like Nate can provide regular check-ins to help make sure clients stay on track as they work to achieve their long-term goals. But even as Nate runs the numbers to gain a clearer picture of his clients’ finances, he’s also getting to know them as people.
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ichael Greenberg has handled his own investments ever since he was a kid researching how to put his paper route earnings to work in the stock market. With decades of experience plotting his own course, he’s comfortable maintaining an aggressive, equities-focused portfolio, even as he nears retirement age. Michael is 55 now but has had enough assets to retire since his 40s and isn’t worried about how he’ll support himself in the years ahead. Michael is the very model of a self-directed investor. However, this doesn’t mean he always goes it alone. As a Schwab client for more than two decades, Michael has come to value his relationship with Nate Cicotello, his Schwab Financial Consultant based in Lone Tree, Colo. The two talk over the phone at least once a quarter, and meet in person once a year for a portfolio checkup. “Nate encourages me to re-engage on a regular basis and helps me stay on track with my investments and financial planning,” Michael says. “He serves as my conscience, reminding me that I have some work to do.”
Michael Greenberg (left) values the advice of Schwab Financial Consultant Nate Cicotello. The two check in regularly.
“Every investor is different, and it’s part of my job to understand how my clients’ needs and expectations inform their individual approaches to investing,” Nate says. “Understanding leads to trust, and trust is an essential part of any successful relationship.” “This is especially true when markets get rocky or periods of uncertainty arise. Investors who can discuss investing ideas with a trusted professional are less likely to be swayed by what’s going on around them,” he says. Michael appreciates being able to bounce investment ideas off Nate. He may be largely self-
directed, but Michael says he still relies on Nate to “bring me back to the table.” “Nate understands my personal investing goals and encourages me to stick with my approach, even if it’s more aggressive than what is typically recommended for someone my age,” Michael says.
A fresh perspective
Recently, Michael was thinking about investing in a certain company and wanted to free up some resources to cover the cost. He identified an account that he thought wasn’t delivering the returns necessary to meet his
“Nate encourages me to re-engage on a regular basis and helps me stay on track with my investments and financial planning.” — Schwab client Michael Greenberg
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Michael and his wife, Beth, continue to prioritize their investing to benefit their children.
Let’s Talk Call your Schwab Consultant for a portfolio review and to discuss your planning goals.
goals, but before executing any trades he thought it would be best to double-check with Nate. After considering Michael’s proposal, Nate emailed him some initial thoughts and the two met a few days later to discuss them. Upon reviewing the account in question, Nate suggested they assess its performance using some different benchmarks. As it turned out, the account was actually doing better than Michael had realized and he decided to keep his investments as they were. “Nate’s biggest value to me is that he’s there when I need him,” Michael says.
Even with their retirement taken care of, Michael and his wife, Beth, continue to prioritize their investing. “I’ve built enough wealth that I don’t feel the need to worry too much about depletion,” Michael says. “I continue to invest aggressively because I’m not really investing for myself anymore— I’m investing for my children and grandchildren.” As part of this process, Michael has been working to instill an appreciation for investing and financial planning in his daughters, 8-year-old Alexandra and 11-yearold Madeline. This is actually something of a family tradition. When he was a young boy, Michael and his father would sit together poring over the stock prices in the newspaper and in research reports. “The girls can read stock charts pretty well, better than most adults I know,” Michael says. The girls aren’t shy about sharing their financial knowledge with their classmates. Representatives from Schwab’s Lone Tree office recently visited Madeline’s school to talk about the time value of money and the
importance of saving for the future. They did an exercise with Madeline’s sixth-grade class on needs versus wants, and they were thrilled when Madeline noted that she was saving her money to buy stocks.
Michael has also passed along another part of his investing life: his relationship with Schwab. “We opened custodial accounts for them at Schwab shortly after they were born,” he says. Alexandra and Madeline make their own deposits when they visit a Schwab branch. They love signing the backs of checks and filling out deposit slips. When the family is out shopping or in the car, it is not unusual for them to talk about which stock they want to buy next. But again, the relationship isn’t limited to mere transactions. Last summer, Michael and his family attended a Schwab clientappreciation event at a nearby museum. While they were there, Michael got a chance to catch up with Nate—and Michael’s girls had a chance to run around with Nate’s daughters. -
The opinions expressed by clients are not meant to suggest future performance or the suitability of any account type, product or service for any particular client, and may not be representative of the experience of other clients. ©2015 Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. All rights reserved. Member SIPC. (0815-3930)
Keeping it in the family
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Information Security at Schwab
Schwab is always working to keep your personal information— and your money—safe.
Jim McGuire oversees Schwab’s technology innovation, development, infrastructure and operations.
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nformation security is a hot topic these days. The internet has given rise to a new world of convenience in shopping, banking and investing. Unfortunately, it has also provided another avenue for criminals to attempt sophisticated new types of fraud. The stakes are high, especially for financial services firms. To learn more about how Schwab protects client information and assets, we sat down for a discussion with Jim McGuire, Executive Vice President and Chief Information Officer. In his role, Jim oversees Schwab’s technology innovation, development, infrastructure and operations.
Information security is a key priority for a financial services firm like Schwab. How does the company safeguard client data? Jim McGuire: Frankly, we try to keep the details of our methodology confidential to make it more difficult for would-be criminals to get a foothold. What I can tell you is that we have a strong culture of risk management at Schwab, and we protect client accounts in multiple ways. We maintain a multifaceted security program that combines complementary tools, controls and
technologies to protect data. We continuously monitor our systems, and we work collaboratively with government agencies, law enforcement and other financial services firms to address potential threats. All of the channels through which clients access Schwab are protected. While we have sophisticated procedures in place to protect client security online, it doesn’t end there. When you call us, our representatives ask for several pieces of identifying information before you can conduct transactions. When you visit a branch, we ask you for a photo ID to verify your identity.
Can you describe the role technology plays in protecting client information? JM: We use advanced encryption technology to secure communications on schwab.com. When clients access their accounts, our sites deploy multilayered protections that go well beyond login name and password. If we suspect unauthorized account activity, we ask for additional authentication before permitting access to an account. We also limit the number of unsuccessful attempts at logging into an account. Exceeding this limit triggers the need for additional authentication and a password change. Our website also uses Extended Validation Certificates to help clients verify that they are accessing our authentic site and not a “spoofed” site masquerading as schwab.com. All you have to do is look for the green bar in front of the web address at the top of your browser to confirm that you’re on Schwab’s official, secure site. The “http://” and padlock icon in the address bar also confirm you are on our secure site. Automated alerts and other actions play a behind-the-scenes role in our authentication and monitoring processes. We use pattern analysis and other advanced analytical systems to detect suspicious account activity
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and prevent unauthorized access. If we detect an unauthorized login, we lock the account and require either a phone call or a visit to a local branch.
What kinds of operational controls do you have in place? JM: We limit the number of employees who have access to clients’ personal information, and all employees who handle sensitive information are trained to maintain privacy and security. We also enforce internal authentication measures to protect against the potential for “social engineering.” That’s
We have a strong culture of risk management at Schwab, and we protect client accounts in multiple ways.
— Jim McGuire, Executive Vice President and Chief Information Officer at Schwab
What you can do
While Schwab does much of the work to keep account information secure, taking some basic, preventive steps can help. Many involve common sense, like routinely checking your monthly statements to make sure reported account activity is legitimate. You should also: Keep your operating systems and security software up to date. Ensure you are using the latest versions of your web browser and operating system. Install anti-virus software and antispyware software on all technology platforms. Be wary when you aren’t using your own equipment. Take extra care when using public computers, and use only wireless networks you trust or that are protected.
Be alert to potential “phishing” scams. These are efforts by cybercriminals to gain access to your private information or electronic files by sending you an email that looks like it came from a trusted source, usually by asking you to click on a link embedded in the message. The best way to avoid phishing scams is not to click on links in potentially suspicious emails.
Verify you’re on a secure website. When you log in to schwab.com, check the address bar for site validity. Create a unique password for each financial institution you do business with. And be sure to change it every six months. If you think your password has been compromised, you should change it to a new password from a safe computer and contact us immediately.
Consider adding a verbal password to your Schwab account. This provides an extra layer of security when you call us. Also, make it a practice to never share your passwords. Consider getting a free security token. This can make every login even more secure. To order a token, just call us at 877-566-1823.
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How Does Your Portfolio Stand Out from the Crowd? High Conviction. Low Correlation. Invest in the Power of Our “Best Ideas” Strategies
Value Line Larger Companies Focused Fund (VALLX)
Value Line Mid Cap Focused Fund (VLIFX)
Past performance is no guarantee of future results. Investors should carefully consider the investment objectives, risks, charges and expense of a fund. This and other important information about a fund is contained in the fund’s prospectus. For more complete information about these Value Line Funds and a copy of a prospectus, contact Schwab at 800-435-4000 or go to www.schwab. com/mutualfunds, or contact your financial advisor. Read the prospectus carefully before you invest or send money.
The Value Line Mid Cap Focused Fund and Value Line Larger Companies Focused Fund were formerly named the Value Line Fund and Value Line Larger Companies Fund, respectively. There are risks associated with investing in small and mid-cap stocks, which tend to be more volatile and less liquid than stocks of large companies, including the risk of price fluctuations. Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., Member SIPC, receives remuneration from fund companies and/or their affiliates in the Mutual Fund OneSource® service for recordkeeping, shareholder services and other administrative services. The amount of fees Schwab or its affiliates receive from funds participating in the Mutual Fund OneSource service is not considered in the Select List selection, nor does any fund pay Schwab to be included in the Select List (0815-4614).
when a fraudster masquerading as a client or another employee tries to trick a company’s employees into inadvertently breaking normal security procedures and divulging personal information. When sensitive transactions occur in a client’s account—such as money transfers, securities sales or purchases, or changes to personal information—we send an alert to the client. Schwab’s fraud teams also monitor activity looking for suspicious behavior. Certain criteria cause various transactions to be reviewed by highly trained specialists. This allows us to spot attempted intrusions and act on them quickly.
Are there steps clients should take to protect themselves? JM: We believe security is a partnership between us and our clients. We work hard to do our part in keeping client information safe, and we provide the Schwab Security Guarantee to make sure our clients have peace of mind about the security of their information at Schwab. The Schwab Security Guarantee simply states that Schwab will cover 100% of any losses in any of your Schwab accounts due to unauthorized activity. The terms of the guarantee are available at schwab.com/ OMguarantee. But there are some important steps clients should take, including updating operating systems on all their devices, practicing good password discipline and guarding against attempts to “phish” their personal information. (See “What you can do” on page 39.) -
Call Us If you have questions or comments about information security at Schwab, please call us at 877-566-1823.
©2015 Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. All rights reserved. Member SIPC. (0915-3684)
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FROM CH A RL ES SCHWA B B A NK
A P P L E PAY ™ With your Schwab Bank debit card and Apple Pay, you can use your iPhone® 6 or iPhone 6 Plus to make convenient purchases at more than 220,000 retailers and in many apps. Apple Pay is: - Simple to set up. Just reader. You’ll see your open Passbook® on your Schwab Bank debit card iPhone and then use your on your screen. Place phone’s camera to take your ﬁnger on the Touch a picture of your debit ID™ to complete the card. (You can also type payment. in your debit card number - Safe and secure. Merchants never see your manually.) Finally, enter debit card number. the three-digit security - Available for Apple code from the back of WatchTM. Just load your your card. - Easy to use. Make Schwab Bank debit card purchases by holding information via the Apple your phone near a Watch app. retailer’s contactless
Travel With Conﬁdence Schwab Bank’s debit card gives you worldwide ATM fee rebates and smart chip-based security.
→ Add your Schwab Bank debit card to Apple Pay today.
lanning a trip this fall? Don’t forget your Schwab Bank Visa® Platinum Debit Card. Schwab Bank debit cards are a convenient way to make purchases and get easy access to cash from ATMs. These features are especially handy if you’re traveling overseas: - Receive unlimited worldwide ATM fee rebates.1 We will reimburse any ATM fees you are charged anywhere in the world. - Make purchases wherever Visa is accepted.2 We don’t charge foreign-exchange transaction fees for purchases with your card. - Enjoy smart-chip-enabled security. We offer chip-based card technology to help protect your information. Schwab Bank debit cards have both an embedded microchip and a traditional magnetic stripe. The embedded chip provides enhanced security and protection when you make purchases at chip-enabled terminals. Chip-enabled cards are accepted in more than 130 countries worldwide and will soon become the standard in the United States.
Brokerage Products: Not FDIC Insured • No Bank Guarantee • May Lose Value Unlimited ATM fee rebates apply to cash withdrawals using your debit card wherever it is accepted. ATM fee rebates do not apply to any fees other than those assessed for using an ATM to withdraw cash from your Schwab Bank account. Schwab Bank makes its best effort to identify those ATM fees eligible for rebate, based on information it receives from Visa and ATM operators. In the event that you have not received a rebate for a fee that you believe is eligible, please call a Schwab Bank Client Service Specialist for assistance at 888-403-9000. Schwab Bank reserves the right to modify or discontinue the ATM fee rebate at any time. 2 If you use your debit card to withdraw foreign currency from an ATM or to pay for a purchase with foreign currency, we charge your account only for the U.S. dollar equivalent of the transaction. There is no additional percentage added for the foreign currency transaction. See the Schwab Bank Visa Debit Card Agreement for details. Apple, the Apple logo and iPhone are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Apple Pay and Touch ID are trademarks of Apple Inc. App Store is a service mark of Apple Inc. Apple Pay is a service provided by Apple Inc. and not by Schwab Bank. Apple Pay and Apple are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Schwab Bank has no liability to you for any failure of Apple Pay. Schwab Bank does not charge a fee for providing access to Apple Pay. However, third-party message and data rates may apply; please check with your wireless carrier for details regarding any fees. Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. (“Schwab”) and Charles Schwab Bank (“Schwab Bank”) are separate but afﬁliated companies and subsidiaries of The Charles Schwab Corporation (“Charles Schwab”). Brokerage products are offered by Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., Member SIPC. Deposit and lending products and services are offered by Charles Schwab Bank, Member FDIC and an Equal Housing Lender. ©2015 Charles Schwab Bank. All rights reserved. Member FDIC and Equal Housing Lender. (0815-3599)
- Be conﬁdent with the Schwab
LEARN MORE For more about the Schwab Bank Visa Platinum Debit Card, visit schwab.com/ O M checking.
Charles Schwab will cover 100% of losses in any of your Charles Schwab accounts due to unauthorized activity.
A Schwab Bank debit card is just one of the benefits that comes with a Schwab Bank High Yield Investor Checking Account®. Fall 2015
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Looking for Quality Mutual Funds for Your Portfolio?
OU R F U N D L I S T S A R E N OW O N L I N E The list of selected funds will no longer appear in Onward, but you can access and print the same information online at schwab.com/aboutfunds.
Perspectives and First Quarter 2015 Summary
Our mutual fund lists help you ﬁnd expert fund choices.
The he Standard & Poor’s 500 Composite Index managed to hang onto a modest gain of 0.90%, closing out a volatile quarter with mixed domestic data. Domestic large-cap stocks faced pressure from a rising dollar, falling oil prices and uncertainty about the timing of an expected interest rate hike from the Federal Reserve.
Access our lists of selected funds at schwab.com/aboutfunds.
Income Mutual Fund Select List ®
As you near retirement, your investment focus will likely shift from accumulating wealth to generating income. You want your portfolio to sustain you through your retirement with regular income, but you don’t want to sacrifice the potential for growth. The Income Mutual Fund Select List was developed to help investors like you achieve an income-producing portfolio through either interest or dividend payments.
Large-cap arge-cap U.S. stocks underperformed small- and mid-cap stocks. Large-cap Growth Category led the way returning gains of 3.45%, with Large-cap Blend and Large-cap Value close behind with returns of 1.13% and 0.18%, respectively.
SA M PL E
The Mutual Fund OneSource Select List prescreens quality, no-load mutual funds in many categories: - Large-cap stock funds - Small- and mid-cap U.S. stock funds - International stock funds - Specialty funds - Taxable bond funds - Tax-free bond funds
In the near term, volatility is likely to continue as U.S. stocks contend with Fed rate hike uncertainty, dollar strength, soft economic data, oil volatility and earnings concerns. More sideways action could be in store for the U.S. equity market for Q2, with the possibility of a correction still lurking. However, we believe domestic economic data will start to rebound, helping push stocks higher in the second half of the year. Get, or stay, diversified and consider near-term opportunities overseas for your portfolio according to your risk tolerance.
Mutual Fund OneSource Select List® Schwab’s Mutual Fund OneSource Select List helps investors identify the most favorably evaluated OneSource funds based on research by Charles Schwab Investment Advisory, Inc. These funds all meet stringent screening criteria and have no loads or transaction fees. It’s easy to use our experts’ list of actively managed funds to find the right selection for you.
LARGE-CAP U.S. STOCK FUNDS
All perspectives are as of April 19, 2015 For the latest up-to-date perspectives, please visit schwab.com
FOR THE QUARTER ENDED MARCH 31, 2015
AVERAGE ANNUALIZED TOTAL RETURN UPSIDE DOWNSIDE DOWNSIDE GROSS NET 3 5 10 SINCE MARKET MARKET MARKET EXPENSE EXPENSE CAPTURE RATIOa YEARS YEARS YEARS INCEPTION CAPTURE CAPTURE RATIO a
TOTAL ASSETS ($M)
Schwab Core Equity Fund (07/01/96)
Laudus U.S. Large-Cap Growth Fund (10/14/97)
Schwab Dividend Equity Fund (09/02/03)
FUND NAME (FUND INCEPTION DATE)
LEADING SCHWAB AFFILIATE FUNDS d
FUNDAMENTAL INDEX FUNDS
Schwab Fundamental U.S. Large Co Index Fund (04/02/07)
Janus Contrarian T (2/29/00)
Parnassus Core Equity Investor (9/1/92)
Glenmede Large Cap Core Port (2/27/04)
Oakmark I (8/5/91)
TIAA-CREF Social Choice Eq Retail (3/31/06)
MARKET CAP-WEIGHTED INDEX FUNDS
Schwab® S&P 500 Index Fund (05/20/97)
LEADING 3RD PARTY FUNDS
Janus Research T (5/3/93)
Janus Forty T (7/6/09)
Glenmede Large Cap Growth (2/27/04)
Lord Abbett Growth Leaders A (6/30/11)e
American Century Equity Income Inv (8/1/94)
JPMorgan Equity Income A (2/18/92)e
JPMorgan Intrepid Value A (2/18/05)e
Delaware Value A (9/14/98)
Principal Equity Income A (5/31/39)e
Schwab 1000 Index® (Dividends Reinvested)
S&P 500 Index® (Dividends Reinvested)
New to the Select List this quarter
Asset Class and Performance Benchmark Definitions Large-cap U.S. stock funds invest primarily in stocks that fall in the top 70% of the U.S. market capitalization range as defined by Morningstar, Inc. Growth funds invest in companies that may be experiencing rapid growth in earnings, sales or return on equity. Value funds invest in companies that may have share prices below estimated fair market value, undervalued assets, an opportunity to “turnaround” or lower price-to-earnings or price-to-book ratios. Blend funds invest in a combination of value and growth stocks. The S&P 500® Index includes common stocks of 500 widely held companies. S&P 500 is a registered trademark of The McGraw-Hill Co., Inc. If an expense waiver was in place during the period, the net expense ratio was used to calculate fund performance. A net expense ratio lower than the gross expense ratio may reflect a cap on or contractual waiver of fund expenses. Please read the fund prospectus for details on limits or expiration dates for any such waivers.
Performance quoted is past performance and is no guarantee of future results. Current performance may be lower or higher. Visit schwab.com for month’s end performance information. Investment value will fluctuate, and shares, when redeemed, may be worth more or less than original cost.
Mutual Fund OneSource Select List — Second Quarter 2015
The Income Mutual Fund Select List gives you: - Prescreened, no-load, no-transaction fee mutual funds that match your portfolio goals - Mutual funds with a history of making income distributions on a regular basis - Yield-enhancing mutual fund categories such as multi-sector bonds, international bonds and real estate investment trusts (REITs) Access our lists of selected funds at schwab.com/aboutfunds.
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“Gro be s pros Con on fund tran to c Cha prog cos No m is fo inve from Inte illiq Sma Cha serv in th Plea such Som may *
Would you still like to receive a printed copy of a Select List? Call 800-540-0078 to request a quarterly mailing.
EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS FOR THE QUARTER ENDED MARCH 31, 2015 QUOTE ETF SELECT LIST CATEGORY SYMBOL
Schwab U.S. Large-Cap
Dow Jones U.S. Large Cap Total Stock Market Index
Index covers over 700 largest U.S. firms which comprise about 80% of the U.S. market (by capitalization)
U.S. EQUITY ETFs
TAL ETS M)
Schwab U.S. Large-Cap Growth
Dow Jones U.S. Large Cap Growth Total Stock Market Index
ETF has diversified exposure to large growth names such as Apple, Berkshire Hathaway and Google
Schwab U.S. Large-Cap Value
Dow Jones U.S. Large Cap Value Total Stock Market Index
ETF has diversified exposure to large value names such as diversified exposure ExxonMobil, GE, and Wells Fargo
Around 500 holdings providing U.S. equity exposure to the mid-cap portion of the broader U.S. stock market
Schwab U.S. Mid-Cap
Dow Jones U.S. Mid Cap Total Stock Market Index
Vanguard Mid-Cap Growth ETF
CRSP US Mid Cap Growth Index
Mid-cap growth style index. Main sectors are industrials, consumer services and technology
Vanguard Mid-Cap Value
CRSP US Mid Cap Value Index
Mid-cap value style index. Main sectors are financials and Mid-cap value style index. Main sectors are consumer goods
Schwab U.S. Small-Cap
Dow Jones U.S. Small Cap Total Stock Market Index
Focuses on over 1700 small-cap companies; index excludes the smallest micro-cap stocks
SPDR S&P SmallCap 600 Growth
S&P Small Cap 600 Growth Index
Holds small-cap stocks with growth characteristics and market caps ranging from $250M to $1.2B
SPDR S&P SmallCap 600 Value
S&P Small Cap 600 Value Index
Holds stocks with value characteristics selected from the S&P 600 Small Cap 600 index S&P 600 Small Cap 600 index
Total Stock Market
Schwab U.S. Broad Market ETF
Dow Jones U.S. Broad Stock Market Index
l arge to to small-cap small-cap Holds over 1900 large Holds over 1900 large to small-cap firms; covers virtually the entire U.S. stock market (by capitalization)
Schwab U.S. Dividend Equity ETF
Dow Jones U.S. Dividend 100 Index
Holds U.S. companies that consistently pay dividends and have strong relative fundamental strength based on financial ratios strong relative fundamental fundamental
Schwab International Equity ETF
FTSE Developed ex U.S. Index
Canada included in this index which highlights large and mid-cap stocks from 20 developed markets
iShares MSCI EAFE Growth Index
MSCI EAFE Growth Index
iShares MSCI EAFE Value Index
MSCI EAFE Value Index
Schwab International Small-Cap Equity
FTSE Developed Small Cap ex-U.S. Liquid Index
The fund has diversified exposure to international small-cap companies in over 20 developed international markets
Emerging Market Stock
Schwab Emerging Markets Equity ETF
FTSE Emerging Index
Large and mid-cap stocks from over 20 emerging markets. Financials are over 25% of the holdings Tracks a cap-weighted index of developed and emerging market countries excluding the U.S.
SA M PL E
Do You Need Help Finding the Right ETF for Your Portfolio? The ETF Select List® provides a list of low-cost ETFs picked by our experts.
INTERNATIONAL EQUITY ETFs
All World ex-U.S. Stock
SPDR MSCI ACWI ex-U.S.
MSCI All Country World Index ex USA Index
Vanguard Total World Stock Index ETF
FTSE Global All Cap Index
SPDR STOXX Europe 50
STOXX Europe 50 Index
Pacific Asia Stock
Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index FTSE Developed Asia Pacific
Developed stock markets excl. U.S. and Canada. Targets securities with growth characteristics Developed stock markets excl. U.S. and Canada. Targets securities with value characteristics
Holds over 6000 stocks spanning the investable global stock markets, including emerging markets Holds 50 of the largest companies in Europe, including Nestle, HSBC, and Royal Dutch Shell
Features about 800 stocks, approximately 55% from Japan; also includes Australia, South Korea and Hong Kong
Pacific Asia ex-Japan Stock
iShares MSCI Pacific ex-Japan iShares MSCI Pacific ex-Japan
MSCI Pacific ex-Japan Index MSCI Pacific ex-Japan
Includes publicly traded stocks from Australia, Hong Kong, and Singapore
WisdomTree Japan Hedged Equity
WisdomTree Japan Hedged Equity Index
Provides exposure to Japanese equities, while hedging fluctuations between the value of the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen
SPDR S&P China SPDR S&P China
S&P China BMI Index S&P China
Tracks a broad, cap-weighted index of investable Chinese shares. The fund’s holdings stretch across all cap sizes
ith more than 1,600 ETFs available and more coming out every week, choosing an ETF can seem more overwhelming than ever. Our quarterly ETF Select List is designed to help you find a low-cost ETF and make more confident investing decisions.
New to the ETF Select List this quarter
“Gross expenses” reflect a fund’s total annual operating expenses as stated in the fund’s prospectus and do not reflect any expense reimbursements or waivers that may exist. Some ETFs appearing on this List may expenses” reflect a fund’s total annual operating expenses as stated in the be subject to expense reimbursements and waivers, and less such reimbursements and waivers may have lower total annual operating expenses (i.e., “net expenses”) than indicated herein. Please read the fund prospectus carefully to determine the existence of any expense reimbursements or waivers and details on their limits and termination dates. Conditions onditions Apply: Trades in ETFs available through Schwab ETF OneSource™ (including Schwab ETFs™) are available without commissions when placed online in a Schwab account. Schwab ETFs™ are the only funds available on Schwab ETF OneSource™ in certain categories. Service charges apply for trade orders placed through a broker ($25) or by automated phone ($5). An exchange processing fee applies to sell transactions. Certain types of Schwab ETF OneSource™ transactions are not eligible for the commission waiver, such as short sells and buys to cover (not including Schwab ETFs™). Schwab reserves the right to change the ETFs we make available without commissions. All ETFs are subject to management fees and expenses. Please see pricing guide for additional information. ™ Schwab & Co., Inc. receives remuneration from third-party for record keeping, shareholder services and other administrative services, including Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. receives remuneration from third-party ETF companies participating in Schwab ETF OneSource program development and maintenance. Investment returns will fluctuate and are subject to market volatility, so that an investor’s shares, when redeemed or sold, may be worth more or less than their original development and maintenance. Investment returns “(NAV). cost. Unlike mutual funds, shares of ETFs are not individually redeemable directly with the ETF. Shares are bought and sold at market price, which may be higher or lower than the net asset value “(NAV)” Noo mention of particular funds or fund families here should be construed as a recommendation or considered an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities. This information provided here is for general informational purposes only and should not be considered an individualized recommendation or personalized investment advice. The securities listed may not be suitable for everyone. Each investor needs to review a securities transaction for his or her own particular situation. Schwab or its employees may sometimes hold positions in the securities listed here. Data contained here is obtained from what are considered reliable sources; however, its accuracy, completeness or reliability cannot be guaranteed. involve additional International investments involve additional risks, which include differences in financial accounting standards, currency fluctuations, political instability, foreign taxes and regulations, and the potential for illiquid markets. Investing in emerging markets may accentuate these risks. Small-cap funds are subject to greater volatility than those in other asset categories. Charles Schwab Investment Management, Inc., (“CSIM”) the investment advisor for the Schwab ETFs and an affiliate of Schwab, receives fees from the Schwab ETFs for investment advisory and fund administration services. The amount of fees CSIM receives from the Schwab ETFs is not considered in ETF Select List selection, nor do the Schwab ETFs or any third-party ETF, or any of their affiliates, pay Schwab to be included in the ETF Select List. Please note this List is not exhaustive. Many high-quality ETFs could be appropriate for you based on your portfolio goals and trading strategies. Schwab offers additional tools and resources on schwab.com to help you find them, such as the ETF Screener, in-depth fund-level analysis, and expert opinions covering a wide variety of products and investing strategies. Some specialized exchange-traded funds can be subject to additional market risks. Investment returns will fluctuate and are subject to market volatility, so that an investor’s shares, when redeemed or sold, may be worth more or less than their original cost. Unlike mutual funds, shares of ETFs are not individually redeemable directly with the ETF. *
Investors should consider carefully information contained in the prospectus, including investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. You can obtain a prospectus by calling 800-435-4000. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. Investment value will ﬂuctuate, and shares, when redeemed, may be worth more or less than original cost. If an expense waiver was in place during the period, the net expense ratio was used to calculate fund performance. (0815-4668)
The ETF Select List gives you:
- Low-cost ETFs: All ETFs on this list have
been picked because they have the lowest cost among the qualifying ETFs in their respective category. - Broad diversiﬁcation: Representing more than 66 asset categories, you can build a portfolio of ETFs or explore niche categories to help you meet your goals. - Expert research: All ETFs have gone through a rigorous analytical and qualitative review by the investment experts at Charles Schwab Investment Advisory, Inc.
Access our lists of selected funds at schwab.com/aboutfunds.
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Ready to buy or refinance? Schwab Bank can help.
Visit schwab.com/ mortgagerates to see today’s rates.
Call 1-877-490-6837 or visit schwab.com/mortgagerates to get started. Highest in Customer Satisfaction in the U.S. 2010‑2014 Primary Mortgage Origination and 2014 Mortgage Servicing1 In order to participate, you must agree that the lender, Quicken Loans, may share your information with Charles Schwab Bank. This offer is subject to change or withdrawal at any time and without notice. Nothing herein is or should be interpreted as an obligation to lend. Loans are subject to credit and property approval. Other conditions and restrictions may apply. Hazard insurance may be required. Program terms and conditions are subject to change. 1. Quicken Loans received the highest numerical score in the proprietary J.D. Power Primary Mortgage Origination (2010–2014) and Servicer (2014) Studies.SM 2014 Origination Study based on 3,393 total responses measuring 12 lenders and the opinions of consumers who originated a new mortgage. Servicer Study based on 5,120 responses measuring 20 companies and the satisfaction of consumers with their current mortgage servicer. Proprietary study results are based on experiences and perceptions of consumers surveyed in July through September 2014 (Origination) and March through April 2014 (Servicer). Your experiences may vary. Visit jdpower.com. Charles Schwab Bank and Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., are separate but affiliated companies and subsidiaries of The Charles Schwab Corporation. Investment products are offered by Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. (Member SIPC). Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., does not solicit, offer, endorse, negotiate, or originate any mortgage loan products and is neither a licensed mortgage broker nor a licensed mortgage lender. Home lending is offered and provided by Quicken Loans Inc., Equal Housing Lender. Quicken Loans Inc. is not affiliated with The Charles Schwab Corporation, Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., or Charles Schwab Bank. Deposit and other lending products are offered by Charles Schwab Bank, Member FDIC and an Equal Housing Lender. Lending services provided by Quicken Loans Inc., a subsidiary of Rock Holdings Inc. “Quicken Loans” is a registered service mark of Intuit Inc., used under license. Licensed in all 50 states. State-specific license information: Arizona: Quicken Loans Inc., 16425 North Pima, Suite 200, Scottsdale, AZ 85260, Mortgage Banker License #BK-0902939; Arkansas: Quicken Loans Inc., 1050 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI 48226-1906, 1-888-474-0404; California: Licensed by Department of Corporations, CA Residential Mortgage Lending Act; Colorado: Quicken Loans Inc., NMLS #3030, 1-888-474-0404, Regulated by the Division of Real Estate; Georgia: Residential Mortgage Licensee (#11704)—1050 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI 48226-1906; Illinois: Residential Mortgage Licensee #4127—Department of Financial and Professional Regulation, 1050 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI 48226-1906; Maine: Quicken Loans Inc., Supervised Lender License NMLS #3030; Massachusetts: Quicken Loans Inc., Mortgage Lender License #ML-3030; Minnesota: Not an offer for a rate lock agreement; Mississippi: Licensed by the Mississippi Department of Banking and Consumer Finance; Nevada: Quicken Loans Inc., 8860 S. Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89123, License #356738; New Hampshire: Licensed by the NH Banking Department, #6743MB; New Jersey: Licensed Mortgage Banker—NJ Department of Banking, first (and/or second) mortgages only; New York: Licensed Mortgage Banker—NYS Banking Department; Oregon: Quicken Loans Inc.—License #ML-1387; Pennsylvania: Licensed as a first Mortgage Banker by the Department of Banking and licensed pursuant to the Pennsylvania Secondary Mortgage Loan Act; Rhode Island: Licensed Lender; Texas: Quicken Loans Inc., 1050 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI 48226-1906; Virginia: Quicken Loans Inc., NMLS ID #3030 (www.nmlsconsumeraccess.org); Washington: Consumer Loan Company License CL-3030; Quicken Loans Nationwide Mortgage Licensing System #3030. Restrictions may apply. Equal Housing Lender. Charles Schwab Bank, 211 Main Street, San Francisco, CA 94105. ©2015 Charles Schwab Bank. All rights reserved. Member FDIC. Equal Housing Lender. CLB(615-3011) ADP86890-00 (06/15)
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Today could be the perfect time to consider purchasing a vacation or investment property, or refinancing an existing loan. With Charles Schwab Bank’s home lending program provided by Quicken Loans,® you will enjoy strategic support when you are evaluating your next mortgage.
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i m p o r ta n t d i s c lo s u r e s
Investing involves risks, including loss of principal. All expressions of opinion are subject to change without notice in reaction to shifting market, economic or geopolitical conditions. (p. 5, 8, 9, 13–15, 18–19 26–29) Examples provided are for illustrative purposes only and not intended to be reflective of results you can expect to achieve. (p. 5, 23–25, 26–29) Data contained herein from third-party providers is obtained from what are considered reliable sources. However, its accuracy, completeness or reliability cannot be guaranteed. (p. 4, 5, 8, 18–19) Investment returns will fluctuate and are subject to market volatility, so that an investor’s shares, when redeemed or sold, may be worth more or less than their original cost. Unlike mutual funds, shares of ETFs are not individually redeemable directly with the ETF. Shares are bought and sold at market price, which may be higher or lower than the net asset value. (p. 4) The information provided here is for general informational purposes only and should not be considered an individualized recommendation or personalized investment advice. The investment strategies mentioned here may not be suitable for everyone. Each investor needs to review an investment strategy for his or her own particular situation before making any investment decision. Examples are not intended to be reflective of results you can expect to achieve. (p. 4, 5, 8, 9, 16–17, 18–19, 20–22, 23–25, 26–29, 30–33) This information is not intended to be a substitute for specific individualized tax, legal or investment planning advice. Where specific advice is necessary or appropriate, Schwab recommends consultation with a qualified tax advisor, CPA, financial planner or investment manager. (p. 23–25) Diversification strategies do not ensure a profit and do not protect against losses in declining markets. (p. 8, 9, 18–19, 26–29) Fixed income securities are subject to increased loss of principal during periods of rising interest rates. Fixed income investments are subject to various other risks, including changes in credit quality, market valuations, liquidity, prepayments, early redemption, corporate events, tax ramifications and other factors. (p. 5, 16–17) International investments involve additional risks, which include differences in financial accounting standards, currency fluctuations, geopolitical risk, foreign taxes and regulations, and the potential for illiquid markets. (p. 5, 8, 18–19) Investments in currency involve additional special risks, such as credit risk and interest rate fluctuations. (p. 8) Commodity-related products, including futures, carry a high level of risk and are not suitable for all investors. Commodity-related products may be extremely volatile, illiquid and significantly affected by underlying commodity prices, world events, import controls, worldwide competition, government regulations and economic conditions, regardless of the length of time the investments are held. Investments in commodity-related products may subject the fund to significantly greater volatility than investments in traditional securities and involve substantial risks, including risk of loss of principal. (p. 26–29) Schwab introduces its customers interested in trading futures to optionsXpress, Inc. Schwab and optionsXpress, Inc., are affiliates and subsidiaries of The Charles Schwab Corporation. Certain requirements must be met to trade futures. Please read the Risk Disclosure Statement for Futures and Options prior to opening a futures trading account. Call 800-435-4000 for a copy. (p. 26–29) Indexes are unmanaged, do not incur management fees, costs or expenses, and cannot be invested in directly. (p. 4, 9, 18–19, 26–29) The S&P 500® Index is a market capitalization-weighted index comprising 500 widely traded stocks chosen for market size, liquidity and industry group representation. (p. 4, 18–19, 26–29, 30–33) The Russell 2000® Index is a subset of the Russell 3000® Index representing approximately 10% of the total market capitalization of that index. It includes approximately 2,000 of the smallest securities based on a combination of their market cap and current index membership. (p. 9) The Dow Jones Industrial Average™, also referred to as The Dow®, is a price-weighted measure of 30 U.S. blue-chip companies. The Dow covers all industries with the exception of transportation and utilities, which are covered by the Dow Jones Transportation Average™ and Dow Jones Utility Average™. (p. 9) Some specialized exchange-traded funds can be subject to additional market risks. Investment returns will fluctuate and are subject to market volatility, so that an investor’s shares, when redeemed or sold, may be worth more or less than their original cost. (p. 4)
The MSCI EAFE Index is a free float-adjusted market capitalization index that is designed to measure the equity market performance of developed markets, excluding the U.S. and Canada. The MSCI EAFE Index consists of the following 21 developed market country indexes: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. (p. 18–19) The MSCI Emerging Markets Index captures large and mid-cap representation across 23 emerging markets countries. The index covers approximately 85% of the free float-adjusted market capitalization in each country. It covers Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Qatar, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. (p. 18–19) The S&P GSCI Index is a broad-based, production-weighted index meant to be representative of the global commodity market beta. (p. 26–29) The Ibbotson Associates SBBI U.S. Long-Term Government Bond Index is a market value-weighted index which measures the performance of long-term U.S. corporate bonds. (p. 26–29) Ibbotson Associates SBBI U.S. Inflation Index tracks U.S. inflation. (p. 26–29) Schwab’s StreetSmart Edge is available for Schwab Trading Services clients. Access to Nasdaq TotalView® is provided for free to nonprofessional clients who have made 120 or more equity and/or options trades in the last 12 months or have made 30 or more equity and/ or options trades in either the current or previous quarters, or maintain $1 million or more in household balances at Schwab. Schwab Trading Services clients who do not meet these requirements can subscribe to Nasdaq TotalView for a quarterly fee. Professional clients may be required to meet additional criteria before obtaining a subscription to Nasdaq TotalView. This offer may be subject to additional restrictions or fees, and may be changed at any time. The speed and performance of streaming data may vary depending on your modem speed and ISP connection. Access to electronic services may be limited or unavailable during periods of peak demand, market volatility, systems upgrades or maintenance, or for other reasons. (p. 20–22) The Personal Portfolio Review is complimentary, although the implementation of any recommendations made during the consultation may result in trade commissions or other fees, charges or expenses. The Personal Portfolio Review is available only to clients with at least $25,000 in assets at Schwab or prospects with at least $25,000 in assets available to bring to Schwab. Individualized recommendations are available only to Schwab clients and are limited to assets held in a Schwab retail brokerage account. Information provided to prospects, or pertaining to assets held outside of Schwab, as part of a Personal Portfolio Review are examples of the kinds of recommendations available on assets held at Schwab and do not constitute recommendations, solicitations or investment advice. (p. 23–25) The ThomasPartners Dividend Growth Strategy is available through managed account programs sponsored by Schwab. Program fees may vary. There are two versions of the ThomasPartners Dividend Growth Strategy. ThomasPartners Dividend Growth Strategy (K-1 Generating) has direct exposure to master limited partnerships (MLPs) and generates IRS Schedule K-1 tax forms. The other version, ThomasPartners Dividend Growth Strategy (Non-K-1 Generating), uses exchange-traded funds (ETFs) to provide exposure to MLPs and therefore does not generate IRS Schedule K-1 tax forms. Please read Schwab’s applicable disclosure brochure for important information and disclosures. Schwab makes available other equity strategies in its managed account programs that focus on dividend-paying stocks, including strategies that are managed by firms that are unaffiliated with Schwab. Because Schwab and ThomasPartners are affiliates, Schwab and its affiliates generate more combined revenue if you choose ThomasPartners than if you choose an unaffiliated manager with a similar strategy. (p. 30–33) The Schwab Center for Financial Research is a division of Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. (p. 5, 8, 9, 15–17, 23–25, 26–29, 30–33) Charles Schwab Investment Advisory, Inc., is an affiliate of Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. (p. 4, 5, 26–29) ©2015 Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. All rights reserved. Member SIPC. (0815-5008)
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ON YOUR SIDE
Time In, Not Timing Waiting for the “right” time to invest can be costly.
If you’re waiting “for the ‘perfect’ moment to invest, there’s really no time like the present.
important is that you commit to a regular investing schedule and take advantage of the only other factor you can control, which is time in the market. If you’re waiting for the “perfect” moment to invest, there’s really no time like the present. Research by the Schwab Center for Financial Research has shown that putting your money to work as soon as possible is the best way to increase your wealth over the long term. Trying to “time” the market can cause you to miss the biggest market gains. If you’re not comfortable investing large lump sums, you could make small, more-frequent investments. For example, with a dollar-cost averaging strategy you could invest a set amount of money on a regular basis, regardless of how the stock market is performing. When the market is down and prices are low, you’ll buy more shares. When the market and prices are up, you’ll buy fewer shares. Again, investing takes perspective and discipline. But the costs of sitting on the sidelines can be high.
Charles R. Schwab,
Founder & Chairman
See page 46 for important information. Diversification and dollar-cost averaging strategies do not ensure a profit and do not protect against losses in declining markets. (0815-3984)
©Schwab Photo Library
hen it comes to investing, slogans are no substitute for strategy. But if there’s one investing adage that comes close to a rock-solid principle, it’s this: Time in the market is more important than timing the market. For most people, building wealth is a long-term endeavor. It’s the product of disciplined saving and investing— and time. Obviously, no strategy can protect you against losses when markets tumble. But committing to a regular savings and investing plan that gives your investments time to grow is an important step toward your future financial security. My own experience investing through an IRA was an important lesson. Back in 1982, I started contributing $2,000 to my IRA every year. When I converted the account to a Roth IRA 19 years later, I had contributed a total of $38,000 but the value of my account had grown to $201,658—despite significant market downturns along the way. That is the miraculous power of compound growth. Your own returns may differ substantially depending on your preference for risk, chosen asset allocation and future market and economic conditions, but the principles remain the same. What’s
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